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Volume-2, Issue-11 October 18, 2015
09
Volume-2, Issue-11 October 18, 2015

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S. No

Volume-2 Issue-11, October 2015, ISSN: 2347-6389 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd.

Page No.

1.

Authors:

Abdelzaher E. A. Mostafa

Paper Title:

Studying the Effect of Using Nano-Materials on the Performance of Cold Recycled Asphalt Pavement Mixes

Abstract: Recycling asphalt pavement creates a cycle of reusing materials that optimizes the use of natural resources. Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) is a useful alternative to virgin materials because it reduces the need to use virgin aggregate.[1] In this investigation, it has been studied the effect of nano material such as nano silica and nano carbon on the mechanical properties of marshall specimen. Tests were carried out on cold RAP with slow setting emulsion. Optimum percent of emulsion was obtained from previous research. After determination the optimum percent of nano silica and nano carbon tubes, these percent used with optimum percent of latex to studding the improvement in mechanical properties. The results showed that, there is improvement in stability about 150% by used nano materials.

Keywords:
Cold Asphalt Mixtures; Asphalt Emulsions; Polymers; Nano-Materials.


References:

1.        J.-Y. Yu, P.-L. Cong, and S.-P. Wu, “Laboratory Investigation on the Properties of Asphalt Modified with Epoxy Resin,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 113, pp. 3557–3563, 2009.
2.        Audrey Copeland. (2011). “Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement in Asphalt Mixtures: State of the Practice”,Federal Highway Administration 6300 Georgetown Pike McLean, VA  22101

3.        Guidelines for Cold In-Place Recycling, (1991).“Asphalt Recycling and Reclaiming Association”, Annapolis, MD.

4.        Pavement Recycling Guidelines for Local Governments - Reference Manual. (1987). Report No. FHWA-TS-87-230, FHA, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington DC.

5.        L.E. Santaucci and M.T. Hayashida. (1983).“Design and Testing of Cold-Recycled Asphalt Mixes”, Proceedings of AAPT, Vol. 52.

6.        Torbjörn Jacobson. (2002) “Cold Recycling Of Asphalt Pavement - Mix In Plant”, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute SE-581 95 Linköping Sweden

7.        F. L. Roberts, P. S. Kandhal, E. R. Brown, D. Y. Lee and T. W. Kennedy. (1996). “Hot Mix Asphalt Materials, Mixture Design and Construction”. United States of America: National Centre for Asphalt Technology.

8.        N. Thom. (2008). “Principles of Pavement Engineering”. London: Thomas Telford.

9.        M. A. Shafii, M. Y. A. Rahman, and J. Ahmad. (2011). “Polymer Modified Asphalt Emulsion”. International Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering. 11(6): 43–49.

10.     Didier Lesueu. (2011). “Polymer Modified Bitumen Emulsions”, Materials R&D Manager, Rue de l´Industrie, 31, 1400 Nivelles – Belgium

11.     Zhanping You “Nanomaterials in Asphalt Pavements. (2013). “Technological University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Michigan Houghton, Michigan, 49931-1295, USA, DOI:10.6135/Ijprt.Org.Tw/2013.6(3).Iv, ISSN 1997-1400 Int. J. Pavement Res. Technol. 6(3)

12.     Felice Giuliani, Silvia Rastelli. (2004). “An Analytical Approach To Evaluate The Performance Of Cold Recycled Asphalt Mixtures”, Dipartimento Di IngegneriaCivile, Dell’ambiente, Del Territorio E Architettura Università Degli Studi Di Parma, Italia.

13.     Resperio. (2008). “IntegraBase & Nanotechnology: Modifying Asphalt on a Molecular Level”. www.resperion.com.


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2.

Authors:

Abdel Zaher Mostafa, Ahmed El-Desouky

Paper Title:

Validating Newly Developed Criteria of Stripping Prediction Using Egyptian Mixes

Abstract: Many transportation agencies in North America and Egypt have reported that stripping can be a significant issue in most pavement distresses such as rutting, fatigue cracking, ravelling, potholes, and flushing. In addition, Canadian airfield asphalt concrete pavements, especially in the Atlantic, Central, and Pacific regions, show evidence of stripping due to moisture susceptibility. It is recognized that density and in-place air-void content (AVC) are important parameters of a properly constructed asphalt pavement. The first objective of this research was to investigate different factors that may affect stripping evaluation. During the development stage samples representing four Canadian airfield mixes were prepared and tested to investigate the effect of soaking duration, air voids content, and soaking temperature. The results of the air-void investigation, which were compatible with the concept of Pessimum theory, showed that samples should be prepared with an air-void content of more than 8.5%, with a soaking duration of 6 to 8 hours and soaking temperature of 70 °C. The second objective of this research is to validate the developed criteria of stripping prediction on Egyptian mixes. The validation was carried out using Egyptian mixes with five different anti-stripping agents and it showed that the developed stripping evaluation guidelines has the ability to predict the effect of anti-stripping agents on the retained tensile strength of the examined mixes.

Keywords:
Asphalt Mixtures, Evaluation, Field, Laboratory, Stripping, Testing Procedures.


References

1.        Abdelzaher E. A. Mostafa and M. S. OUF (2010). “Theoretical And Experimental Study To The Relation Between Air Void Content And Stripping Prediction Of Airfield Asphalt Pavement” American Society Of Civil Engineers, 6th International Engineering and Construction, Conference (IECC’6), Cairo, Egypt, June 28-30, 2010.
2.        American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. 1989. Standard method of test for resistance of compacted bituminous mixture to moisture induced damage (T283). Standard Specifications for Transportation Materials and Methods of Sampling and Testing. AASHTO, Washington, D.C.

3.        Asphalt Institute. 1987. Cause and prevention of stripping in asphalt pavements. Educational Series ES-10, Second Edition, College Park, MD.

4.        Brown, A. B., Sparks, J.W., and Marsh, G.E. 1995. Objective appraisal of stripping of asphalt from aggregate mixtures. STP 240. American Society for testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, 59-74.

5.        Canadian Standards and Recommended Practices. (CSRP) 1996. Pavement construction: materials and testing. Report ASG-06, Airport Civil Engineering, Architectural and Engineering Services, Public Works and Government Services Canada, Hull, QC.

6.        Fromm, H.J. 1974. The mechanisms of asphalt stripping from aggregate surfaces. Proceedings, Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists, AAPT, 43: 191-223.

7.        Halim, A. and A. Mostafa, Easa, S. (2006) “Pavement stripping- susceptibility tests: Do they really work?” Asphalt Professional, 20, pp19-24.

8.        Hassan, Y, Abd El Halim, A.O., and A. Mostafa (2002) “Comparative Study of Different Laboratory Quality Control Measures of Asphalt Concrete Mixes” Proceeding of the 6th International BCRA, Lisbon, Portugal, 24-26, Volume 2, P- 433, June.

9.        Hicks, R.G. 1991. Moisture damage in asphalt concrete. National Cooperative Highway Research Program, NCHRP , Synthesis of Highway Practice Report 175, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.

10.     Kandhal, P .S. 1992. Moisture susceptibility of HMA mixes: Identification of problem and recommended solutions. National Centre for Asphalt Technology, NCAT, Report No.92-1, Auburn University, AL.

11.     Kennedy, T. W., Roberts, F.L., and Lee, K. W. 1983. Evaluation of moisture effects on asphalt concrete mixtures. Transportation Research Record 911, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. 134-143.

12.     Lottman, R. P. 1977. The Moisture mechanism that causes asphalt stripping in asphalt pavement mixtures. University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho, Final Report, Project R-47.

13.     Ministry of Transportation of Ontario. 1995. Contract design estimating and documentation manual. Surveys and Design Office, Downsview, ON.

14.     Mohamed, E. H. and Abd El Halim, A.O. 1993. Differential thermal expansion and contraction: A mechanistic approach to adhesion in asphalt concrete. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 20(3): 366-373.

15.     Mostafa, A and K. Kandil (2008) “Modifying Conditioning Procedure to Assess Stripping of Airfield Asphalt Pavements” Civil engineering Journal, February, V 115, P C 1-PC10, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt.

16.     Mostafa, A. 2005. The stripping suitability of airfield asphalt mixes: The development of guidelines for a laboratory test method. Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON.

17.     Mostafa, A. and A.O. Abd El Halim (2004) Evaluating the Effect of Surface Cracks on Moisture Induced Damage Using Different Standard Test Methods for Airfield Asphalt Pavement Mixes, CTAA pp 318-339, November 2004, Montreal, Quebec.

18.     Mostafa, A. and Abd El Halim, A.O. 2004. Evaluating the effect of surface cracks on moisture induced damage using different standard test methods for airfield asphalt pavement mixes. CTAA, Montreal, Quebec, 318-339.

19.     Mostafa, A., Abd El Halim A.O., Easa, S. and Niazi, Y (2006) “Suitable Test Method to Predict the Effect of stripping on the Mechanical Properties of Canadian Airfield and highway Pavements”. The paper submitted to the 10th ICAP conference, Aug 12-17.

20.     Mostafa, A., Abd El Halim A.O., Hassan, Y. and Scarlett, J. (2004) “Evaluation of Laboratory Testing of Moisture Susceptibility of Asphalt Concrete Mixes,” MAIREPAV03, Guimaraes, Portugal, 359-368, 7-10 July.

21.     Mostafa, A., Abd El Halim, A.O., and Easa, S. (2005) “Evaluating the Current Standard Test Methods in Assessing Moisture Induced Damage for Highway and Airfield Asphalt Pavement Mixes” the Fourth International Conference on Maintenance and Rehabilitation of Pavements and Technological Control, MAIREPAV04 Belfast, Northern Ireland p109, 18-19th August.

22.     Mostafa, A., Abd El Halim, A.O., and Easa, S. 2005. Evaluating the current standard test methods in assessing moisture induced damage for highway and airfield asphalt pavement mixes. Fourth International Conference on Maintenance and Rehabilitation of Pavements and Technological Control, MAIREPAV04 Belfast, Northern Ireland, 1-9.

23.     Mostafa, A., Abd El Halim, Amir, Bekheet, W, Abd El Halim, A.O., and Easa, S. (2005) “reducing the susceptibility of flexible pavements to moisture induced damage through superior compaction Technology” CSCA, 6th Transportation Specialty Conference, pp 318-339, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, June 2-4.

24.     Skog, J. and Zube, E. 1963. New test methods for studying the effect of water action on bituminous mixtures. Proceedings, Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists, AAPT, 32: 380-411.

25.     Strategic Highway Research Program. 1994. Permanent deformation response of asphalt-aggregate mixes.  SHRP-A-415,  National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C.

26.     Terrel, R.L. and AI-Swailmi, S. 1993. Role of Pessimum voids concept in understanding moisture damage to asphalt concrete mixtures. Transportation Research Record 1386, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 31-37.

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3.

Authors:

H. El-Didamony, B. A. Sabrah, S. Abd El-Aleem Mohamed, H. Gouda

Paper Title:

Effect of Nanosilica on The Formation of Calcium sulphoaluminate Hydrates Prepared from Nanomaterials

Abstract: Nano-materials such as nanosilica (NS), nano-calcium hydroxide {Ca(OH)2}, and nano-aluminum hydroxide {Al(OH)3} have been synthesized using a suitable method. In addition, gypsum has been prepared by precipitation method. The as prepared nano materials are characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy. The average particle sizes are 15 nm, 49 nm and 25 for NS, Ca(OH)2 and Al(OH)3, respectively. These nano-materials are mixed with gypsum in a stoichiometric ratio to form ettringite as well as monosulphate mixes. NS was added to these mixes and hydrated at room temperature up to 28 days. All hydrated samples were characterized by performing chemical methods, XRD, differential thermal analysis, and thermal gravimetric analysis techniques. It was found that, the disappearance of Ca(OH)2 due to its consumption during the reaction with NS stabilizes ettringite formation.

Keywords:
Etrringite, ettringite+NS, hydration time, characterization techniques.


References:

1.        Hou P., Qian J., Cheng X., and Shah S. P., “Effects of the pozzolanic reactivity of nano-SiO2 on cement-based Materials”, Cem. Concr. Compos.; 55 ( 2015), pp. 250–258.
2.        Sanchez F., and Sobolev K., “Nanotechnology in concrete─a review”, Cem. Concr. Res.; 24 (2010), pp. 2060-2071.

3.        Zyganitidis I., Stefanidou M., Kalfagiannis N., and Logothetidis S., “Nano-mechanical characterization of cement-based pastes enriched with SiO2 nano-particles”, Mat. Sci. Eng. B; 176 (9) (2011), pp. 1580–1584.

4.        Singh L. P., Karade S. R., Bhattacharyya S. K., Yousuf M. M., and Ahalawat S., “Beneficial role of nano-silica in cement based materials─a review”,Cem. Concr. Res.; 47 (2013), pp. 1069-1077.

5.        Said A. M., Zeidan M. S., Bassuoni M. T., and Tian Y., “Properties of concrete incorporating nano-silica”, Cem. Concr. Res.; 36 (2012), pp. 838–844.

6.        Nazari A., and Riahi S., “The effects of SiO2 nanoparticles on physical and mechanical properties of high strength compacting concrete”, Compos. Part B: Eng.; 42 (2011), pp. 570–578.

7.        Quercia G., and Brouwers H. J. H., “Application of nano-silica (NS) in concrete mixtures”, In Gregor Fisher, Mette Geiker, Ole Hededal, Lisbeth Ottosen, Henrik Stang (Eds.), 8th fib International Ph.D. Symposium in Civil Engineering. Lyngby, June 20-23 (2010), Denmark, pp. 431-436.

8.        Zhidan R., Wei S., Haijun X., and Guang J., "Effects of nano-SiO2 particles on the mechanical and microstructural properties of ultra-high performance cementitious composites"; Cem. Concr. Compos., 56 (2015), pp. 25–31.

9.        Said A. M., Zeidan M. S., Bassuoni M. T., and Tian Y., "Properties of concrete incorporating nano-silica", Cem. Concr. Res.; 36 (2012), pp. 838–844.

10.     Gaitero J. J., Campillo I., and Guerrero A., “Reduction of the calcium leaching rate of cement paste by addition of silica nano particles”, Cem. Concr. Res.; 38 (2008), pp. 1112-1118.

11.     Berra M., Carassiti F., Mangialardi T., Paolini A. E., and Sebastiani M., ''Effects of nanosilica addition on workability and compressive strength of Portland cement pastes'', Constr. Build. Mater.; 35 (2012), pp. 666–675.

12.     Stefanidou M., and Papayianni I. ''Influence of nano-SiO2 on the Portland cement pastes Composites'', Compos. Part B: Eng.; 43 (2012), pp. 2706–2710.

13.     Maheswaran S., Bhuvaneshwari B., Palani G. S., Nagesh R. I. and Kalaiselvam S., “An overview on the influence of nano silica in concrete and a research initiative”, Res. J. Recent. Sci.; 2 (2013), pp. 17-24.

14.     Ji T., “Preliminary study on the water permeability and microstructure of concrete incorporating nano-SiO2”, Cem. Concr. Res.; 35 (2005), pp. 1943-1947.

15.     Qing Y., Zenan Z., Deyu K., and Rongshen C. H., “Influence of nano-SiO2 addition on properties of hardened cement paste as compared with silica fume”, Constr. Build. Mater.; 21 (2007), pp. 539-545.

16.     Gaitero J. J., Campillo I., and Guerrero A., “Reduction of the calcium leaching rate of cement paste by addition of silica nanoparticles”, Cem. Concr. Res.; 38 (2008), pp. 1112-1118.

17.     17.   Deb S. K., Manghnani M. H., Ross K., and et al., “Raman scattering      and X-ray diffraction study of the thermal decomposition of an ettringite-group crystal”, Phys. Chem. Miner.; 30 (1) (2003), pp. 31—38.

18.     Yamaguchi G., Uchikawa H., Takagi S., and Tukiyama K., “Calcium-fluoroaluminate and ferrite phases in regulated set cement”, Cem. Sci. Concr. Technol.; 26 (1972), pp.  41- 48.

19.     Uchikawa H., and Matsuzaki Y., “Newly developed epoch-making super high early strength cement”, Bull. Ceram. Soc. Jpn.; 7 (4) (1972), pp. 249— 261.

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25.     Odler I. and Jawed I., “Expansive reactions in concrete”; pp. 221–47 in Materials Science of Concrete II. Edited by J. Skalny and S. Mindess. American Ceramic Society, Westerville, OH; 1991.

26.     Taylor H. F. W., “Cement Chemistry”; Academic Press, New York; (1990), pp. 167.

27.     Li G., Le Bescop P., and Moranville M., “Expansion mechanism associated with the secondary formation of the U-Phase in cement-based systems containing high amounts of Na2SO4”, Cem. Concr. Res.; 26 (2) (1996), pp. 195–201.

28.     Zhang Q., Saito F., “Sonochemical synthesis of ettringite from a powder mixture suspended in water”, Powder Technology; 107 (2000), pp. 43–47.

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30.     EL-Didamony H., EL-Sokkari T. M., Khalil K. H. A., Heikal M. and Ahmed I. A., “Hydration mechanisms of calcium sulphoaluminate C4A3 , C4A  phase and active belite β-C2S”, Ceramics-Silikáty; 56 (4) (2012), pp. 389-395.

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34.     El-Didamony H., Khalil K. H. A., Ahmed I. A., Heikal M., Preparation of β-dicalcium silicate (β-C2S) and calcium sulfoaluminate (C3A3C ) phases using non-traditional nano-materials, Constr. Build. Mater.; 35 (2012), pp.77.

35.     ROY A. and Bhattacharya J., “Microwave-assisted synthesis and characterization of CaO Nanoparticles”, International Journal of Nanoscience; 10(3) (2011), pp. 413-418.

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38.     El-Didamony H., “Application of differential thermogravimetry to the hydration of expansive cement pastes”, Thermochimca Acta; 35(1980), pp. 201-209.

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4.

Authors:

E. Pradyumna, N. Sreelekha, D. Amaranatha Reddy, K.R. Gunasekhar, K. Subramanyam

Paper Title:

Dopant Induced Room Temperature Ferromagnetism in Spintronic SnO2: Co Nanoparticles

Abstract: Pristine and Co doped SnO2 nanoparticles were synthesized in aqueous solution by facile chemical co-precipitation method with polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a capping agent. The as prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). XRD patterns revealed that particles of all samples were crystallized in single phase rutile type tetragonal crystal structure (P42/mnm) of SnO2. TEM images indicated spherical shape of nanoparticles with a size ranging from 25-35 nm. FTIR spectra suggested that the PEG simply coexisted with the SnO2 surface nanoparticles and inhibited the agglomeration of the nanoparticles. Magnetization measurements revealed that all the Co doped SnO2 nanoparticles exhibited ferromagnetic signal which became stronger with increasing Co content. Variation of ferromagnetic order with Co content from vibration sample magnetometer is endorsed to the anti-ferromagnetic (AFM) interactions among the magnetic ions as anticipated by the bound magnetic polarons (BMP) theory.

Keywords:
Chemical synthesis, PEG, TEM, BMP model.


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5.

Authors:

Stavros Sakellariou, Fani Samara, Stergios Tampekis, Athanasios Sfougaris, Olga Christopoulou

Paper Title:

Targeting To an Efficient Prevention Strategy of Forest Fires, Estimating The Fire Hazard on Islands The Case Study of Thasos Island, Greece

Abstract: Forests provide plenty of fundamental tangible and intangible goods to our planet, from vital chemical substances (O2) to more economic issues (wood for economic activity and heating etc.). Hence, besides the ecological role of forest fires at our ecosystems, an efficient prevention strategy for confronting recurrent and destructive fires is considered of crucial importance. Primary objective of the paper is the estimation of fire hazard in Thasos island taken into consideration all the factors which are conducive to forest fires ignition and spreading. The pillar of the methodology lies in the fact that a unique fire risk map will be created based on the local characteristics, namely, topography (aspect and slope); fuels characteristics and the proximity from the road and urban network. Taking into account the individual contribution to the overall fire hazard of all these factors, we developed a model for estimating the fire hazard of any given area, overlapping all the essential thematic maps. We identified some critical areas which are characterized very susceptible and they situated in the interior and the western part of the study area, where mixed and very flammable fuels take place along with steep ground and south aspect. This project may be quite applicable to any territory, adjusted to the local differences and peculiarities. The importance of such a project is prominent, while it constitutes a project with great added value, least cost and if it may be combined with other supporting activities to maximize the forest fires prevention and safeguarding the cultural and ecological wealth.

Keywords:
Forest fires, Fire hazard, islands, Thasos, Greece.

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