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Volume-2, Issue-12 November 18, 2015
08
Volume-2, Issue-12 November 18, 2015

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S. No

Volume-2 Issue-12, November 2015, ISSN: 2347-6389 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

Page No.

1.

Authors:

Ahmed El-Desouky, Gamal El-Sheaky

Paper Title:

New Concept for the Design of Flexible Pavement at Critical Highway Sections

Abstract: The design procedure of flexible pavement to be completely rational in nature, consideration should be given to all forces acting on pavement through the vehicle's tire. Although the horizontal forces (HF) on the pavements are of significant values, all pavement design methods do not take the actions of these forces on the pavement system into consideration. This may appear to be unrealistic load condition. Previous studies concluded that horizontal forces have significant effect on the response of flexible pavements. The main objective of this research is to recommend/quantify solutions to eliminate the effect of these forces on the response of flexible pavements. To achieve this objective theoretical analysis, using finite element technique, was performed to investigate the response of different flexible pavement sections under various wheel loads. Linear analysis was conducted using the computer program ANSYS 12.1. The basic measuring parameters of flexible pavement in this study were; the maximum surface deflection (SD), the maximum horizontal tensile strain at the bottom of asphalt concrete layer (εt) and the maximum compressive strain at the top of subgrade (εc). A total of 643 cases were studied to investigate the effect of HF on the behavior of asphalt pavements. Based on the response of asphalt pavement under HF, recommended pavement sections were adopted to eliminate the effect of HF.  Reduction of the effect of HF on the flexible pavement response may achieved by increasing the AC layer thickness (h1) followed by the asphalt concrete layer modulus (E1) or by increasing the base layer modulus (E2).

Keywords:
Flexible Pavement, Horizontal Forces, Design, Critical Sections.


References:

1.        Yang H. Huang, “Pavement Analysis and Design,” Prince-Hall, Inc, 1993.
2.        S. Khedr, A. El-Sayed, and A. El-Desouky, “Effect of Horizontal forces on flexible pavement response,” Third International Conference on Civil & Architecture Engineering, MTC, Cairo, Egypt, March, 1999.

3.        A. El-Desouky, S. Khedr, and A. El-Sayed, “Variation of flexible pavement behavior with Asphalt Concrete Modulus under various wheel loads,” Third International Conference on Civil & Architecture Engineering, MTC, Cairo, Egypt, March, 1999.

4.        A. El-Desouky, A. El-Sayed, and I. El-Sherief, “Effect of Various Tracked Vehicle Loads on Flexible Pavement Life,” Ninth International Conference on Applied Mechanics, MTC, May, 2000.

5.        A. El-Desouky, A. El-Sayed, and S. Fathalla, "Studying the response of airfield pavement during aircraft ground operations," Fifth International Conference on Civil & Architecture Engineering, MTC, Cairo, Egypt, Nov. 23-25, 2004.

6.        A. El-Desouky and G. El-Shikhy, "Studing the Effect of Layer Properties on Flexible Pavement Response at Critical Highway Sections,” 9th Malaysian Road Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Nov. 10-12, 2014.

7.        ANSYS12.1, Engineering Analysis System, Release 12.1, User’s Manual, SAS IP, ANSYS University Copy, 2008.

8.        The Asphalt Institute, “Thickness Design - Asphalt Pavements for Highways and Streets”, Manual Series No. 1 (MS - 1), September 1981.

9.        W. Uddin, D. Zhang, and F. Fernandez, “Finite Element Simulation of Pavement Discontinuities and Dynamic Load Response”, Transportation Research Record, vol. 1448, pp.100-106, 1994.


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2.

Authors:

Yugandhara S. Sontakke, V. G. Sayagavi, P. J. Salunke, N. G. Gore

Paper Title:

Seismic Analysis of Multistorey Building on Sloping Ground

Abstract: In most of the northern earthquake prone hilly part of the India, due to local topography constraint engineered construction is resulting in the adoption of either a step back or step back & set back configuration as a structural form for buildings. The adopted form is generally irregular, torsionally coupled & hence, susceptible to serve damage when affected by earthquake ground motion. Such buildings have mass & stiffness varying along the vertical & horizontal planes, resulting the centre of mass & centre of rigidity do not coincide on various floors, hence they demand torsional analysis, in addition to lateral forces under the action of earthquakes. In this paper seismic analysis performed on 48 RC buildings with three different configurations like, Step back building, Step back Set back building and Set back building are presented. 3 –D response spectrum analysis including torsional effect has been carried out by considering the dynamic response properties i.e. fundamental time period, top storey displacement and, the base shear action induced in columns with reference to the suitability of a building configuration on sloping ground. It is observed that Step back Set back buildings are found to be more suitable on sloping ground.

Keywords:
Building, Etab, Response Spectrum Analysis, Seismic, Sloping ground.


References:

1.        “Seismic performance of multi-storeyed building on sloping ground” by S. M.Nagargoje and K.S.Sable Elixir Elec. Engg.
2.        “Seismic Analysis of Buildings Resting on Sloping Ground.” by Birajdar, B G., and S. S. Nalawade.

3.        “Earthquake Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Framed Buildings On Hill Slopes.” By Ajay Kumar Sreerama & Pradeep Kumar Ramancharla.

4.        “Seismic Behaviour of Buildings Located on Slopes – An Analytical Study and Some Observations From Sikkim Earthquake of September 18, 2011” by Y. Singh & Phani Gade and D.H. Lang & E. Erduran.

5.        “Seismic Analysis of Buildings Resting on Sloping Ground with Varying Number of Bays and Hill Slopes” by Dr. S. A. Halkude, Mr. M. G. Kalyanshetti,.

6.        “Effect of Sloping Ground on Step- Back and Setback Configurations of R.C.C. Frame Building” by Chaitrali Arvind Deshpande & Prof. P. M. Mohite.

7.        “A Review on Seismic Analysis Of a Building on sloping ground” by Sanjaya Kumar Patro, Susanta Banerjee, Debasnana Jena, Sourav Kumar Das.

8.        “Seismic performance of buildings resting on sloping ground-A review” by Hemal Dr. R. B. Khadiranaikar and Arif Masali.

9.        “Earthquake Building Vulnerability and Damage Assessment with Reference to Sikkim Earthquake 2011” thesis by Venkata Purna Teja Malladi.

10.     “Dynamics of Structures” by A.K.Chopra

11.     “Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures’ by Shashikant K Duggal”

12.     “Some Concepts in Earthquake Behaviour of Buildings” by C. V. R. Murty, Rupen Goswami, A. R. Vijaynarayanan, Vipul V. Mehta

13.     IS 1893 (Part I) 2002 “Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures”.

14.     Explanatory Examples on Indian Seismic Code IS 1893 (Part I) by Dr. Sudhir K Jain (IITK-GSDMA)

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3.

Authors:

A. Hussain, M. A. Matin, M. F. Islam

Paper Title:

Fabrication and Characterization of Dielectric Properties of BaTiO3/Ni0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4 Multiphase Multiferroic

Abstract: Multiphase multiferroic ceramics based on xBaTiO3 (BTO)/(1-x)Ni0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4 (NZFO) system were fabricated employing solid–state synthesis route. The composition of BTO was varied with x= 0.7-0.9 and sintered at 1275ºC or 1275ºC. Employing field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) an improved microstructure has been found for samples sintered at 1275ºC.  X-ray diffraction study confirmed the crystalline tetragonal perovskite structure of BTO phase and cubic spinel structure of NZFO phase in fabricated samples at all sintering temperatures. With increasing NZFO content dielectric constant was found to be decreased at the studied frequency range of 100 Hz to 2 MHz at room temperature. Curie temperature has shown to increase significantly with increasing composition of NZFO and broadened.

Keywords:
Multiferroic composites, dielectric constant, Microstructure, BTO/NZFO.


References:
1.     N. A. Spaldin, S.-W. Cheong, and R. Ramesh, "Multiferroics: Past, present, and future," Physics Today, vol. 63, pp. 38-43, 2010.
2.     W. Eerenstein, N. D. Mathur, and J. F. Scott, "Multiferroic and magnetoelectric materials," Nature, vol. 442, pp. 759-65, Aug 17 2006.

3.     N. A. Hill, "Why Are There so Few Magnetic Ferroelectrics?," journal of physical chemistry b, vol. 104, pp. 6694–6709, 2000.

4.     F. Fang, Y. Y. Zhou, Y. T. Xu, W. Q. Jing, and W. Yang, "Magnetoelectric coupling of multiferroic composites under combined magnetic and mechanical loadings," Smart Materials and Structures, vol. 22, p. 075009, 2013.

5.     B. K. Bammannavar and L. R. Naik, "Study of magnetic properties and magnetoelectric effect in xNi0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4+(1−x)PZT composites," Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, vol. 324, pp. 944-948, 2012.

6.     A. Testino, L. Mitoseriu, V. Buscaglia, M. T. Buscaglia, I. Pallecchi, A. S. Albuquerque, et al., "Preparation of multiferroic composites of BaTiO3–Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 ceramics," Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol. 26, pp. 3031-3036, 2006.

7.     A. Sakanas, R. Grigalaitis, J. Banys, L. Mitoseriu, V. Buscaglia, and P. Nanni, "Broadband dielectric spectroscopy of BaTiO3–Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 composite ceramics," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 602, pp. 241-247, 2014.

8.     H. Zhang and P. Du, "Ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism in fine-grained multiferroic BaTiO3/(Ni0.5Zn0.5)Fe2O4 composites prepared by a novel hybrid process," Solid State Communications, vol. 149, pp. 101-106, 2009.

9.     S. Lopatin, I. Lopatina, and I. Lisnevskaya, "Magnetoelectric PZT/ferrite composite material," Ferroelectrics, vol. 162, pp. 63-68, 1994.

10.  H. Zheng, W. J. Weng, G. R. Han, and P. Y. Du, "Crucial role of percolation transition on the formation and electromagnetic properties of BaTiO3/Ni0.5Zn0.47Fe2O4 ceramic composites," Ceramics International, vol. 41, pp. 1511-1519, 2015.

11.  R.-F. Zhang, C.-Y. Deng, L. Ren, Z. Li, and J.-P. Zhou, "Dielectric, ferromagnetic and maganetoelectric properties of BaTiO3–Ni0.7Zn0.3Fe2O4 composite ceramics," Materials Research Bulletin, vol. 48, pp. 4100-4104, 2013.

12.  Z. Yu and C. Ang, "Electrical and magnetic properties of BaTiO3−(Ni0.3Zn0.7)Fe2.1O4 composites," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 13, pp. 193-196, 2002.

13.  K. K. Patankar, S. S. Joshi, and B. K. Chougule, "Dielectric behaviour in magnetoelectric composites," Physics Letters A, vol. 346, pp. 337-341, 2005.

14.  O. M. Hemeda, A. Tawfik, A. A. Sharif, M. A. Amer, B. M. Kamal, D. E. El Refaay, et al., "DC conductivity and magnetic properties of piezoelectric–piezomagnetic composite system," Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, vol. 324, pp. 4118-4126, 2012.


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 4.

Authors:

Badr A. El-sayed, Ibrahim A. Ibrahim, Walied A. A. Mohamed, Mahmoud A. M. Ahmed

Paper Title:

Synthesis and Characterization of Crystalline Nano TiO2 and ZnO and their Effects on the Photodegradation of Indigo Carmine Dye

Abstract: TiO2 and ZnO as nanoparticles have been synthesized and characterized using powder X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The study of photocatalytic Activity using the synthesized TiO2 and ZnO in commercial and nano forms on the photodegradation of indigo carmine dye under UV irradiation has been carried out. The photodegradation was monitored by measuring the change of dye concentration as a function of irradiation time with power of UV lambs (254, 312 and 354 nm). The optimum of indigo carmine concentration was initially determined; the effects of different pH's on the photodegradation of IC have been studied in the range of (3 - 13.5) under UV irradiation. Also pKa of the dye was determined by two methods. The photocatalytic effects of different amounts of the synthesized nano particles of TiO2 (28 nm) and ZnO (34 nm) on the photodegradation rates were of the first- order reaction, and mechanism of photodegradation of the dye was discussed. It is observed that the rate of photodegradation process increasing with the nano particles of the synthesized oxides TiO2 (28 nm) and ZnO (34 nm) comparable to their commercial oxides.

Keywords:
Indigo carmine (IC), nano oxides, pKa and photocatalytic degradation.


References:

1.        M. Double., A. Kumar, Biotreatment of Industrial Effluents. Elsevier, Amesterdam, The Netherlands Eunyoung B., Wonyong C., 2003, Highly Enhanced Photoreductive Degradation of Perchlorinated Compounds on Dye-Sensitized Metal/TiO2 under Visible Light,     Environmental Science & Technology, (2005), 37, 147-152.
2.        G. Sachin. Ghugal, S. Suresh. Umare and Rajamma Sasikala, RSC Adv., (2015) 5, 63393

3.        British Journal of Environmental Sciences, (December 2014), Vol.2, No.4, pp.29-40.

4.        International Journal of Chemical Sciences and Applications, (2014), Vol. 5, Issue 1, pp 1-6.

5.        I. T. Peternel, N. Koprivanac, A.M. Locaric Bozic, H.M. Kusic, Comparative study of a UV/TiO2, UV/ZnO and photo-Fenton processes for the organic reactive dye degradation in aqueous solution, Journal of Hazardous Material, 2007, 148, 477-484.

6.        Haarstrick, O.M. Kut, E. Heinzle, TiO2-Assisted Degradation of Environmentally  Relevant Organic Compounds in wastewater Using a Novel Fluidized Bed Photoreactor, Environmental Science & Technology, 1996, 30, 817-824.

7.        H. Lachheb, E. Puzenat, A. Houas, M. Ksibi, E. Elaloui, C. Guillard, J. M. Herrmann., Photocatalytic degradation of various types of dyes (Alizarin S, Crocein Orange G, Methyl red, Congo Red, Methylenel blue) in water by UV- irradiated titania, Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 2002, 39, 75-90.

8.        B  V  Suresh  Kumar,  C  P  Sajan,  K  M  Lokanatha  Rai, K  Byrappa, Indian  Journal of chemical technology  May  2010,  Vol. 17,  pp.  191-197.

9.        M. Voïnov and J. Augustynski., (1997). "Hetreogeneous Photocatalysis", Vol., John wiley & sons LTD, Bafins Lane, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 1UD, England.

10.     Hagfeldt Anders, Michel Gratzcl, (1995) "light induced redox reactions in nanocrystalline systems", Chem Rev, 95, 49- 68.

11.     SobczyÅ„ski, A. Dobosz, Water Purification by Photocatalysis on Semiconductors,  Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, . 2001, 10, 195.

12. A. L. Linsebigler, G. Lu, T. John Yates, (1995), Photocatalysis on TiO2 Surfaces: Principles, Mechanisms, and Selected Results, Chem. Rev, 95, 735.

13.     R. Benedix, F. Dehan and J. Quaas, (2000), Application of Titanium   Dioxide Photocatalysis to Create Self-cleaning Building Materials, LACER, Vol.5.

14.     T. Robinson, G. McMullan, R. Marchant, P. Nigam, Bioresour. Technol., 2001, 77, 247.         

15.     I. M.  Banat, P. Nigam, D. Singh, R. Marchant, Microbial decolorization of    textile-dye- containing effluents: a  review.  Bioresour Technol, 1996, 58, 217-227.

16.     Z. Zainal, L.K. Hui, M. Z. Hussein, Y.H. Taufiq-Yap, A. H. Abdullah, I. Ramli, Removal of dyes using immobilized titanium dioxide illuminated by fluorescent lamps. J. Haz.  Mat., 2005, 125, 113-120.

17.     C. Hachem, F. Bocquillon, O. Zahraa, M. Bouchy, Decolourization of textile industry wastewater by the   photocatalytic degradation process., Dyes and Pigments, 2001, 49, 117-125.

18.     K. M. Joshi et al   Arch. Appl. Sci Res., 2011, 3(2):596-605.

19.     CC  Liu, YH  Hsieh, PF  Lai, CH Li, CL Kao, Photodegradation treatment of azo dye     wastewater by    UV/TiO2 process., Dyes Pigments, 2006, 68, 5–191.

20.     F  Kiriakidou, DI  Kondarides, XE Verykios, The effect of operational parameters and  TiO2 doping on the   photocatalytic degradation of azo-dyes., Catalysis Today, 1999, 54, 30–119.

21.     S  Senthilkumaar, K  Porkodi, Heterogeneous photocatalytic decomposition of Crystal  Violet in UV illuminated sol-gel derived nanocrystalline TiO2 suspension., J. of Colloid Interface  Sci., 2005, 288, 9–184.

22.     CG Silva, W. Wong, JL Faria., Photocatalytic and photochemical degradation of mono-di-and triazo dye in aqueous solution by UV irradiation., J. of  Photochem. Photobiol. A, 2006, 181, 24–314.

23.     Langmuir, J.Am, Chem. Soc., 1918, 40 1361-1403.

24.     AP Toor, A Verma, CK Jotshi, PK Bajpai, V Singh., Photocatalytic degradation of Direct Yellow 12   dye using   UV/TiO2 in a shallow pound slurry reactor.,  Dyes Pigments, 2006,   68, 53–60.

25.     J  Sun, L  Qiao, S Sun, G Wang, Photocatalytic degradation of Orange G on nitrogen-   doped TiO2 catalyst   under visible light and sunlight irradiation, J. Hazard Mater, 2008, 155, 9–312.

26.     M. Vautier, C. Guillard, J.-M. Herrmann, Photocatalytic Degradation of Dyes in  Water: Case Study of Indigo and of Indigo Carmine, Journal of Catalysis, 2001, 201, 46-59.

27.     S.  Görög  ,  Ultraviolet-Visible   Spectroscopy  in Pharmaceutical Analysis CRS Press ( Boca   Raton  New York London Tokyo ) Inc.   ( 1995 ); 82-90 .

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5.

Authors:

Fani Samara, Stavros Sakellariou, Stergios Tampekis, Olga Christopoulou, Athanasios Sfougaris

Paper Title:

Comparison of the land uses on the Island of Skiathos, Greece

Abstract: The island of Skiathos has a total area of 50 sq. Km, accounting for 1.6% of the area of the prefecture of Magnesia and 0.28% of the Region of Thessaly, Greece.  The land is hilly and attributed to farmland, meadows, woodlands, on land covered by water and land occupied by settlements and roads. Also, a large part occupied by burnt areas resulted from the fire of 2007. The aim of this paper is to present the progress of the existing land uses at the Island of Skiathos for the last decades. With the contribution of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and the orthophotomaps, the spatial planning of the land uses can be evaluated for all these years and the total area can also be calculated. Our results are important for understanding the impacts of land uses on ecosystems in the frame of sustainable development. In the past there wasn’t other research about the land uses of Skiathos Island and also is the first digitization of the area.

Keywords:
GIS, land uses, area, Island, thematic maps.


References:

1.        Lasanta-Martínez T., Vicente-Serrano S. M., & Cuadrat-Prats J. M. “Mountain Mediterranean landscape evolution caused by the abandonment of traditional primary activities: a study of the Spanish Central Pyrenees.” Applied Geography 2007, 25(1), 47-65.
2.        Moreira F., Rego F. C., & Ferreira P. G. “Temporal (1958e1995) pattern of Change  in a cultural landscape of northwestern Portugal: implications for fire Occurrence”. Landscape Ecology 2001, 16(6), 557-567.

3.        Narumalani S., Mishra D. R., & Rothwell R. G. Analyzing landscape structural change using image interpretation and spatial pattern metrics. GI Science and Remote Sensing 2004, 41(1), 25-44.

4.        Pausas J. G., Llovet J., Rodrigo A., & Vallejo R. “Are wildfires a disaster in the Mediterranean basin? A review”. International Journal of Wildland Fire 2007, 17(6), 713-723.

5.        Reger B., Otte A., & Waldhardt R. “Identifying patterns of land-cover changeand their physical attributes in a marginal European landscape”. Landscape and Urban Planning 2007, 81(1-2), 104-113.

6.        Serra P., Pons X., & Sauri D. “Land-cover and land-use change in a Mediterranean landscape: a spatial analysis of driving forces integrating biophysical and human factors”. Applied Geography 2008, 28(3), 189-209.

7.        Schulz J. J., Cayuela L., Echeverria C., Salas J., & Rey Benayas J. M. Monitoring land cover change of the dryland forest landscape of Central Chile (1975e2008). Applied Geography 2010, 30(3), 436-447.

8.        Viedma O., Moreno J. M., & Rieiro I. “Interactions between land use/landcover change, forest fires and landscape structure in Sierra de Gredos (CentralSpain)”. Environmental Conservation 2006, 33(3), 212-222.

9.        Vogiatzakis I. N., Mannion A. M., & Griffiths G. H. “Mediterranean ecosystems: problems and tools for conservation”. Progress in Physical Geography 2006, 30(2),175-200.


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