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Volume-2, Issue-3 February 18, 2015
17
Volume-2, Issue-3 February 18, 2015
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S. No

Volume-2 Issue-3, February 2015, ISSN: 2347-6389 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd.

Page No.

1.

Authors:

Vishal J. Dhore, E. R. Deore

Paper Title:

Experimental Investigation of Compact Flywheel using Inertia Augmentation Mechanisms

Abstract: Conventional flywheel system uses a single rim flywheel. The performance of the flywheel depends upon its mass, so also it encounters a lot of air friction and leads to more in-efficiency and more occupation. Flywheel releases stored energy by applying torque to a mechanical load, thereby decreasing the flywheels rotational speed. The dissertation work shows the flywheel optimum design model which fulfils minimum criteria of inertia result into safe and efficient working. In this study work on CAD base design and analysis with experimental base model generation in a feasible area of design. For a optimum design consideration of flywheel compare parameters like torque, power, efficiency with respective to speed. The experimental study and analysis shows the feasible area of design with torque Vs speed comparison by showing no changed in a considering design parameter as per the conventional design. The Power and Efficiency Vs Speed characteristics comparison shows that there is approximately in between seven to eight percentage increase in power output and five to six percentage efficient than the conventional flywheel respectively which will also result in increasing fuel economy of the engine efficient.

Keywords:
 Compact, Conventional, Efficiency, Power, Torque


References:

1.       Fridericy, Palos Verdes Estates (1980), Multi-Rim Flywheel Attachment, United States Patent, and Patent Number: 4,186,623, Application Number 892,587.
2.       R J Haley, J P Kajs, R C Thompson, J H Beno (1998), Design and Testing of a Flywheel Battery for a Transit Bus, Society of Automobile Engineers, 1999-01-1159.

3.       Park, Dong-Hoon, Suwon-Si, Kyunggi-Do (KR), (2000), Dual Mass Flywheel for Automobile Vehicle, European Patent Application, and Patent Number EP 1 046 834 A2, Application Number: 00105556-5.

4.       Alastair John Young, Kenilworth, (2000), Twin Mass Flywheel, United States Patent, Patent Number 6 029 539, Application Number: 09/125 340.

5.       Richard Benito Fradella, San Juan Capistrano (2004), Robust Minimal-Loss Flywheel Systems, United States Patents, Patent Number: US 6 794 777 B1, Application Number: 10/739 119.

6.       Christopher W Gbrys, Reno (2004), Axially Free Flywheel System, United States Patents, Patent Number: US 6 710 489 B1, Application Number: 10/232 793.

7.       Bjorn Bolund, Hans Bernhoff, Mats Leijon (2005), Flywheel Energy and Power Storage System, Science Direct, 11 (2007) 235 – 258.

8.       Ulf Schaper, Oliver Sawodny, Tobias Mahl and Uli Blessing (2009), Modeling and Torque Estimation of an Automotive Dual Mass Flywheel, American Control Conference, Hyatt Regency Riverfront, st Louis, Mo, USA, June 10-12, 2009, WeB16.6.

9.       Walter J Ortmann, Saline (2011), Controlling Torque in a Flywheel Power Train, United States Patent Application Publication, Publication Number: US 2011/0071000 A1, Application Number: 12/562 187.

10.     John Abranhamsson, Hans Bernhoff (2011), Magnetic Bearing in Kinetic Energy Storage Systems for Vehicular Application, Journal of Electrical Systems, 7-2 (2011): 225-236.

11.     Dr. Robert Hebner, (2012), Low-Cost Flywheel Energy Storage for Mitigating the Variability of Renewable Power Generation, Herber Public Version.

12.     Rudolf Glassner, Kottes (2013), Dual Mass Flywheel, United States Patent, Patent Number: US 8 393 247 B2, Application Number: 13/147 048.

13.     Kishor D Farde, Dr. Dheeraj S Deshmukh (2014), Review: Composite Flywheel for High Speed Application, International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering”, ISSN: 2349-2163, Volume 1 Issue 6.

14.     R. S. Khurmi, J. K. Gupta, “Machine Design”, Sixth edition, S. Chand Publication, 2005.

15.     V. B. Bhandari, “Design of Machine Elements”, Third Edition, McGraw-Hill Education Pvt. Ltd. 2007.

16.     Parthiban Delli, Ming Leu (2003), Unigraphics NX-3 for Engineering Design, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Missouri-Rolla.

 

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2.

Authors:

Kumar Gaurav, Bhawna Agarwal, Abhishek Singh, Biswaraj Sen

Paper Title:

Simulation based Study on Fisheye State Routing Protocol

Abstract: Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) have gained immense popularity because of its simplicity, low cost and ease of deployment. It also enables mobile node to form a network without any centralized administrator. However, routing in adhoc network has always been challenging due to absence of any fixed infrastructure. It is self-organizing and adaptive wireless network. In this paper a simulation based study of Fisheye State Routing protocol has been made to understand the sensitivity of afore mentioned (Fisheye State Routing) protocol in highly dynamic network topology. The proposed paper is aimed to analyze the various parameters including throughput, jitter and delay involved on the nodes in FSR. Simulation based analysis of the protocol has been done using QUALNET.

Keywords:
 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs), centralized administrator, FSR, QUALNET.


References:

1.  G. Pei, M. Gerla, Tsu-Wei Chen, "Fisheye State Routing: A Routing Scheme for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks," IEEE ICC 2000, vol. 1, pp. 70 -74.
2.  Jatin Gupta and Ishu Gupta, Volume 3, Issue 5, May 2013, ISSN: 2277 128X “A review of evaluation of the Routing Protocols in MANETs”

3.  Natarajan Meghanathan and Ayomide Odunsi, Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology, (www.jatit.org)

4.  D. B. Johnson, D. A. Maltz, and J. Broch, “DSR: The Dynamic Source Routing Protocolfor Multi-hop Wireless Ad hoc Networks,” Adhoc Networking, edited by Charles E. Perkins, Chapter 5, Addison-Wesley, 2001, pp. 139-172

5.  Ashish K. Maurya, Dinesh Singh and Ajeet Kumar, “Performance Comparison of DSR, OLSR and FSR Routing Protocols in MANET Using Random Waypoint Mobility Model”, International Journal of Information and Electronics Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 5, September 2013

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3.

Authors:

Ricuţa-Vasilica Dobrinoiu, Luminiţa Vişan, Silvana Dănăilă-Guidea, Andrei-Gabriel Ivan, Marius Căruţaşu

Paper Title:

Influence of the Fertilization Pattern on Production and Quality of Sugar Beet Roots Meant for Bio-Ethanol Extraction

Abstract:  Sugar beet growing as raw material for bioethanol production represents an extremely important opportunity for farmers, under the circumstances of some productive varieties use on areas adequately irrigated and fertilized. In comparison with the maize, used as raw material in bio-ethanol production, the sugar beet offers a series of important advantages, such as: the acquirement of a bigger ethanol quantity on the cultivated area (6.300 l bioethanol from sugar beet, in comparison with almost 3.400 l bioethanol obtained from maize grown per hectar), the crop adequacy in colder climate areas, unfavourable to maize, and an irrigation norm with 40 smaller. In this respect, on the one hand, the present work aims at bringing viable and pheasible arguments in favour of sugar beet crops fertilization, in order to obtain an economic effective production, especially during the years with low precipitations and, on the other hand, for a superior valorization of sugar beet production by bioethanol production.

Keywords:
 bioethanol, foliar fertilization, organic fertilization, sugar beet.

References:

1.   Ricuta – Vasilica Dobrinoiu, Ştefana Jurcoane, Ana Roşu, Silvana Dănăilă-Guidea, Maria Moraru, Marin Dumbravă, 2011 - The impact of new technological approaches upon establishing production components and yield randament in Carthamus tinctorium L culture, Romanian Biotechnological Letters, Vol. 16, No.2 2011, p. 6125-6134;
2.   Ricuţa-Vasilica Dobrinoiu, Luminiţa Vişan, Silvana Dănăilă-Guidea, Marin Dumbravă - Impact of some technological links on the production and quality parameters in castor-oil plants (Ricinus communis L.), International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research - Volume 2, Issue 6 , ISSN (Online) 2319-1473, p. 1084-1089, 2014.

3.   Simona - Clara Bârsan, Ancuţa - Maria Puşcaş, E. Luca, A. Setel, 2008, - Bioetanolul şi cultura sfeclei de zahăr, Agricultura–Revistă de ştiinţă şi practică agricolă, nr. 3-4 (67-68)/2008, p. 11-15;

4.  Gh. Manea, 2003 - Elemente pentru o politică naţională de promovare a biocombustibililor, Promovarea în România a surselor regenerabile de energie, Editura Chiminform data, Bucureşti;

5.  Jovana Rancovic, Jelena Dodic, Sinisa Dodic, S. Popov, 2009 - Bioethanol production from intermediate products of sugar beet processing with different types of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Chemical Industry & Chemical Engineering Quarterly, 15 (1), 13-16;

6.  N. Saulescu, 1959 - Câmpul de experienţă. Ed. Agro-Silvică de Stat, Bucureşti, p. 223-228.

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4.

Authors:

Zafarulla Khan, Feras Kafiah, Hafiz Zahid Shafi, Fayez Nufaiei, Sarfaraz Ahmed Furquan, Asif Matin

Paper Title:

Morphology, Mechanical Properties and Surface Characteristics of Electrospun Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) Nanofiber Mats

Abstract:  This paper explores the effect of solution and electrospinning parameters on the morphology, mechanical properties and surface characteristics of Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) electrospun nanofiber mats. PAN/DMF (Dimethylformamide) solutions with different concentrations were electrospun under various parameters. The results show that the average fiber diameter increase from 208 nm to 881 nm with an increase in PAN concentration from 6 wt% to 12 wt%. Feed rate has inconsistent trend on the fiber diameter; however with increasing feed rate from 0.8 ml/hr to 1.4 ml/hr, the average fiber diameter more than doubledfrom400nm to 895nm. Average fiber diameter decreased slightly from 383 nm to 332 nm up to a certain threshold value of voltage, and then increased significantly to 750 nm when voltage was increased beyond this threshold. Somewhat surprisingly, when the distance between needle tip and collector was increased from 100mm to 150 mm, average fiber diameter increased almost four times (200 to 750 nm).Increasing the needle diameter was found to decrease average fiber diameter and has a direct effect on Taylor cone shape and jet length. The increase in PAN concentration from 6 to 12% increased the tensile strength, failure strength and ductility of electrospun nanofiber mats by 346%, 229% and 504%, respectively. PAN concentrations have a significant effect on the wettability of the nanofiber mats as determined by the contact angle measurements. The electrospun mats became increasingly more hydrophobic with increase in PAN concentration.

Keywords:
 PAN, electrospinning, nanofiber morphology, solution and process variables, mat.


References:

1.       Z. M. Huanga, Z. Y. Zhangb, M. Kotakic, and S. Ra, "A review on polymer nanofibers by Electrospinning and their applications in nanocomposites," Composites Science and Technology, vol. 63, pp. 2223–2253, 2003.
2.       L. Yao, T. W. Haas, A. Guiseppi-Elie, G. L. Bowlin, D. G. Simpson, and G. E. Wnek, "Electrospinning and stabilization of fully hydrolyzed poly (vinyl alcohol) fibers," Chemistry of Materials, vol. 15, pp. 1860-1864, 2003.

3.       R. Barhate, S. Koeppl, and S. Ramakrishna, "Porous nano-and microfibrous polymeric membrane material for catalytic support," Chemical Engineering Research and Design, vol. 89, pp. 621-630, 2011.

4.       K. Graham, M. Ouyang, T. Raether, T. Grafe, B. McDonald, and P. Knauf, "Polymeric nanofibers in air filtration applications," in Fifteenth Annual Technical Conference & Expo of the American Filtration & Separations Society, Galveston, Texas, 2002.

5.       K. M. Yun, C. J. Hogan Jr, Y. Matsubayashi, M. Kawabe, F. Iskandar, and K. Okuyama, "Nanoparticle filtration by electrospun polymer fibers," Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 62, pp. 4751-4759, 2007.

6.       L. Moroni, R. Schotel, D. Hamann, J. R. de Wijn, and C. A. van Blitterswijk, "3D FiberDeposited Electrospun Integrated Scaffolds Enhance Cartilage Tissue Formation," Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 18, pp. 53-60, 2008.

7.       Y. Wang, D. J. Blasioli, H.-J. Kim, H. S. Kim, and D. L. Kaplan, "Cartilage tissue engineering with silk scaffolds and human articular chondrocytes," Biomaterials, vol. 27, pp. 4434-4442, 2006.

8.       H. Yoshimoto, Y. Shin, H. Terai, and J. Vacanti, "A biodegradable nanofiber scaffold by electrospinning and its potential for bone tissue engineering," Biomaterials, vol. 24, pp. 2077-2082, 2003.

9.       E. D. Boland, J. A. Matthews, K. J. Pawlowski, D. G. Simpson, G. E. Wnek, and G. L. Bowlin, "Electrospinning collagen and elastin: preliminary vascular tissue engineering," Frontiers in bioscience: a journal and virtual library, vol. 9, pp. 1422-1432, 2004.

10.     E.-R. Kenawy, G. L. Bowlin, K. Mansfield, J. Layman, D. G. Simpson, E. H. Sanders, et al., "Release of tetracycline hydrochloride from electrospun poly (ethylene-co-vinylacetate), poly (lactic acid), and a blend," Journal of controlled release, vol. 81, pp. 57-64, 2002.

11.     D. S. Katti, K. W. Robinson, F. K. Ko, and C. T. Laurencin, "Bioresorbable nanofiberbased systems for wound healing and drug delivery: Optimization of fabrication parameters," Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials, vol. 70, pp. 286-296, 2004.

12.     K. Kim, Y. K. Luu, C. Chang, D. Fang, B. S. Hsiao, B. Chu, et al., "Incorporation and controlled release of a hydrophilic antibiotic using poly (lactide-co-glycolide)-based electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds," Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 98, pp. 47-56, 2004.

13.     M. S. Khil, D. I. Cha, H. Y. Kim, I. S. Kim, and N. Bhattarai, "Electrospun nanofibrous polyurethane membrane as wound dressing," Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials, vol. 67, pp. 675-679, 2003.

14.     K. S. Rho, L. Jeong, G. Lee, B.-M. Seo, Y. J. Park, S.-D. Hong, et al., "Electrospinning of collagen nanofibers: effects on the behavior of normal human keratinocytes and early-stage wound healing," Biomaterials, vol. 27, pp. 1452-1461, 2006.

15.     G. Taylor, "Electrically driven jets," Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences, vol. 313, pp. 453-475, 1969.

16.     A. Yarin, S. Koombhongse, and D. Reneker, "Bending instability in electrospinning of nanofibers," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 89, pp. 3018-3026, 2001.

17.     Z. Dong, S. J. Kennedy, and Y. Wu, "Electrospinning materials for energy-related applications and devices," Journal of Power Sources, vol. 196, pp. 4886-4904, 2011.

18.     D. Reneker, A. Yarin, E. Zussman, and H. Xu, "Electrospinning of nanofibers from polymer solutions and melts," Advances in applied mechanics, vol. 41, pp. 43-346, 2007.

19.     H. Fong, I. Chun, and D. Reneker, "Beaded nanofibers formed during electrospinning," Polymer, vol. 40, pp. 4585-4592, 1999.

20.     L. Huang, R. A. McMillan, R. P. Apkarian, B. Pourdeyhimi, V. P. Conticello, and E. L. Chaikof, "Generation of synthetic elastin-mimetic small diameter fibers and fiber networks," Macromolecules, vol. 33, pp. 2989-2997, 2000.

21.     H. Fong, W. Liu, C.-S. Wang, and R. A. Vaia, "Generation of electrospun fibers of nylon 6 and nylon 6-montmorillonite nanocomposite," Polymer, vol. 43, pp. 775-780, 2002.

22.     C. L. Casper, J. S. Stephens, N. G. Tassi, D. B. Chase, and J. F. Rabolt, "Controlling surface morphology of electrospun polystyrene fibers: effect of humidity and molecular weight in the electrospinning process," Macromolecules, vol. 37, pp. 573-578, 2004.

23.     J. T. McCann, D. Li, and Y. Xia, "Electrospinning of nanofibers with core-sheath, hollow, or porous structures," Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 15, pp. 735-738, 2005.

24.     D. Li, Y. Wang, and Y. Xia, "Electrospinning of polymeric and ceramic nanofibers as uniaxially aligned arrays," Nano letters, vol. 3, pp. 1167-1171, 2003.

25.     C. Henriques, R. Vidinha, D. Botequim, J. Borges, and J. Silva, "A systematic study of solution and processing parameters on nanofiber morphology using a new electrospinning apparatus," Journal of nanoscience and nanotechnology, vol. 9, pp. 3535-3545, 2009.

26.     M. Chowdhury and G. Stylios, "Effect of experimental parameters on the morphology of electrospun Nylon 6 fibres," International Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences, vol. 10, pp. 116-131, 2010.

27.     H. J. Haroosh, D. S. Chaudhary, and Y. Dong, "Effect of solution parameters on electrospun PLA/PCL fibers," presented at the Chemeca 2011: Engineering a Better World: Sydney Hilton Hotel, NSW, Australia, 18-21 September 2011, 2011.

28.     C. Zhang, X. Yuan, L. Wu, Y. Han, and J. Sheng, "Study on morphology of electrospun poly (vinyl alcohol) mats," European Polymer Journal, vol. 41, pp. 423-432, 2005.

29.     L. Wannatong, A. Sirivat, and P. Supaphol, "Effects of solvents on electrospun polymeric fibers: preliminary study on polystyrene," Polymer International, vol. 53, pp. 1851-1859, 2004.

30.     Q. Li, Z. Jia, Y. Yang, L. Wang, and G. Zhicheng, "Preparation and Properties of Poly (vinyl alcohol) Nanofibers by Electrospinning," in International Conference on Solid Dielectrics, Winchester, UK, 2007, pp. 215-218.

31.     B. Ding, H.-Y. Kim, S.-C. Lee, D.-R. Lee, and K.-J. Choi, "Preparation and characterization of nanoscaled poly (vinyl alcohol) fibers via electrospinning," Fibers and Polymers, vol. 3, pp. 73-79, 2002.

32.     P. Supaphol and S. Chuangchote, "On the electrospinning of poly (vinyl alcohol) nanofiber mats: a revisit," Journal of applied polymer science, vol. 108, pp. 969-978, 2008.

33.     D. A. Musale and A. Kumar, "Solvent and pH resistance of surface crosslinked chitosan/poly (acrylonitrile) composite nanofiltration membranes," Journal of applied polymer science, vol. 77, pp. 1782-1793, 2000.

34.     J.-H. He, Y.-Q. Wan, and J.-Y. Yu, "Effect of concentration on electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers," Fibers and Polymers, vol. 9, pp. 140-142, 2008.

35.     X. H. Qin, E. L. Yang, N. Li, and S. Y. Wang, "Effect of different salts on electrospinning of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) polymer solution," Journal of applied polymer science, vol. 103, pp. 3865-3870, 2007.

36.     V. E. Kalayci, P. K. Patra, Y. K. Kim, S. C. Ugbolue, and S. B. Warner, "Charge consequences in electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers," Polymer, vol. 46, pp. 7191-7200, 2005.

37.     S. F. Fennessey and R. J. Farris, "Fabrication of aligned and molecularly oriented electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofibers and the mechanical behavior of their twisted yarns," Polymer, vol. 45, pp. 4217-4225, 2004.

38.     H. Hou, J. J. Ge, J. Zeng, Q. Li, D. H. Reneker, A. Greiner, et al., "Electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofibers containing a high concentration of well-aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes," Chemistry of Materials, vol. 17, pp. 967-973, 2005.

39.     T. Wang and S. Kumar, "Electrospinning of polyacrylonitrile nanofibers," Journal of applied polymer science, vol. 102, pp. 1023-1029, 2006.

40.     P. Heikkilä and A. Harlin, "Electrospinning of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) solution: Effect of conductive additive and filler on the process," Express Polymer Letters, vol. 3, pp. 437-445, 2009.

41.     G. Ma, D. Yang, and J. Nie, "Preparation of porous ultrafine polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers by electrospinning," Polymers for Advanced Technologies, vol. 20, pp. 147-150, 2009.

42.     P. Heikkilä and A. Harlin, "Parameter study of electrospinning of polyamide-6," European Polymer Journal, vol. 44, pp. 3067-3079, 2008.

43.     D. H. Reneker and I. Chun, "Nanometre diameter fibres of polymer, produced by electrospinning," Nanotechnology, vol. 7, pp. 216-223, 1996.

44.     M. M. Demir, I. Yilgor, E. e. a. Yilgor, and B. Erman, "Electrospinning of polyurethane fibers," Polymer, vol. 43, pp. 3303-3309, 2002.

45.     J. Sutasinpromprae, S. Jitjaicham, M. Nithitanakul, C. Meechaisue, and P. Supaphol, "Preparation and characterization of ultrafine electrospun polyacrylonitrile fibers and their subsequent pyrolysis to carbon fibers," Polym Int, vol. 55, pp. 825–833, 2006.

46.     V. Sencadas, D. M. Correia, A. Areias, G. Botelho, A. M. Fonseca, I. C. Neves, et al., "Determination of the parameters affecting electrospun chitosan fiber size distribution and morphology," Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 87, pp. 1295– 1301, 2012.

47.     Ramakrishna, Introduction to Electrospinning and Nanofibers. River Edge, NJ, USA: World Scientific Publishing Co., 2005.

48.     T. Matsuura and M. SouhaimiKhayet, Membrane Distillation: Principles and Applications: Elsevier, 2011.

49.     S.-H. Tan, R. Inai, M. Kotaki, and S. Ramakrishna, "Systematic parameter study for ultra-fine fiber fabrication via electrospinning process," Polymer vol. 46, pp. 6128–6134, 2005.

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5.

Authors:

Bikramjit Singh, Narinder Singh, Hardeep Singh Rai, Satinder Preet Kaur

Paper Title:

Building Model Checker for Automated Code Compliance

Abstract:   This paper presents an automated code checking system Pristine that enables quick and easy compliance assessment and assists designers in finding potential problems early. There has been an extensive amount of research conducted internationally in the area of automated code compliance for the Architecture, Engineering and the Construction (AEC) industry. There is an increased uptake of building information modeling (BIM) and the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) open standard data model for interoperability due to a recent productivity improvement and innovation in the AEC industry. The availability of high performance personal computers, efficient web-based technology, and new initiatives in legal knowledge representation modeling should make the development of commercial compliance checking systems more viable than ever. However, the quest for an industry agreed unified approach seems to be far from over. The system allows for checking of model for different model attributes using the ifcXML schema which is created using either ArchiCAD or Revit architectural soft wares. Once the checking is completed, the interactive reporting interface offers a viewing option of the validated file.

Keywords:
  IFC, BIM, Automated Code Compliance, J2SE.


References:

1.   Johannes Dimyadi, Robert Amor, “Automated Building Code Compliance Checking-Where is it at?”
2.   James Nyambayo, Robert Amor, Ihsan Fraj and Jffrey Wix, “External Product Library System- An Implementation of the Industry Foundation Classes 2.0 Library Model”

3    IAI(1999a) IFC Object Model Architecture Guide, Vol3: IFC Object Model Reference, IFC Release 2.0 Documentation 1999

4.  Ding, L., Drogemuller, R., Roseman, M., Marchant, D. & Gero, J. (2006). Automated code checking for building designs- DesignCheck.

5.  Balachandran M., Roseman M.A. and Gero J.S. (1991) A knowledge-based approach to the automatic verification of designs from CAD databases, in Gero J.S. (ed.), Artificial Intelligece in Design ’91, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, pp. 757-781.

6.   Ding L., Drogemuller R., Jupp J., Rosenman M. A. and Gero J. S. (2004) Automated code checking, CRC CI International Conference 2004, Gold Coast.

7.  Solibri, Inc. http://www.solibri.com

8.   IAI (2004) IFC 2x2 Edition 2 Addendum 1, IAI.

9.   Graphisoft (2001) ArchiCAD IFC Reference Guide, Version 1.0, Graphisoft.

10.  IAI (1999b)I FC Specifications Development Guide: Appendix F, IFC Properties and Property, IFC Release 2.0 Documentation 1999


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6.

Authors:

Suha I. Al-Nassar

Paper Title:

Study the Effect of Ablation Time on the Spectroscopic Characteristics of Zinc Oxide Nan particles Synthesized by Liquid-Phase Pulsed Laser Ablation Technique

Abstract: This work was devoted for producing  ZnO nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation (PLA) of Zn metal plate in the aqueous environment of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) using Q-Switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser with wavelength= 1064 nm, Rep. rate= 10 Hz, Pulse duration =6 ns and laser energy 50 mJ. Solution of nanoparticles is found stable in the colloidal form for a long time. The effect of ablation time on the optical and structure of ZnO was studied is characterized by UV-visible absorption. UV-visible absorption spectrum has four peaks at 256, 259,265,322 nm for ablation time (5, 10, 15, and 20 sec) respectively, our results show that  UV–vis spectra show a blue shift in the presence of CTAB with decrease the ablation time and blue shift indicated to get smaller size of nanoparticles. The blue shift in the absorption edge indicates the quantum confinement property of nanoparticles. Also FTIR transmittance spectra of ZnO2 nanoparticles prepared in these states show a characteristic ZnO absorption at 435–445cm−1.

Keywords:
  Ablation time, CTAB solution, pulsed laser ablation technique, Zinc oxide nanoparticles.


References:

1. V. Piriyawong, V. Thongpool , P. Asanithi, P. Limsuwan, "Effect of Laser Pulse Energy on the Formation of Alumina Nanoparticles Synthesized by Laser Ablation  in Water ", Surf. Sci. Direct , 32 (2012), pp. 1107-1112.
2.  Yoshie Ishikawa, Yoshiki Shimizu, Takeshi Sasaki, Naoto Koshizaki, "Preparation of zinc oxide nanorods using pulsed laser ablation in water media at high temperature", J. of Coll. and Interface Sci. 300 (2006), pp. 612–615.

3.  S. I. Alnassar , E. Akman, B. G. Oztoprak, E. Kacar, O. Gundogdu, A. Khaleel, and A. Demir, "Study of the fragmentation phenomena of TiO2 nanoparticles produced by femtosecond laser ablation in aqueous media", Opt. & Laser Tech., 51 (2013), pp. 17–23.

4. Adel K. Mahmoud, Zainab Fadhi, Suha Ibrahim Al-nassar, Furat Ibrahim Husein, Erhan Akman and Arif Demir, "Synthesis of Zirconia Nanoparticles in Distilled Water Solution by Laser Ablation Technique", J. of Mat. Sci. & Eng. B 3 (6) ( 2013), pp. 364-368.

5.  R.K. Swarnkar, S.C. Singh and R. Gopal, "Optical Characterizations Of Copper Oxide Nanomaterial" , International Conference on Optics and Photonics, Chandigarh, India, 30 Oct.-1 Nov.( 2009)  .

6.  Z Liu1, Y Yuan, S Khan, A Abdolvand, DWhitehead, M Schmidt and L Li," Generation of Metal-Oxide Nanoparticles using Continuous-Wave Fibre Laser Ablation in Liquid", J. Micromech. Microeng., 19 (2009), pp. 1-7.

7.  Sasaki T, Liang C, Nichols W T, Shimizu Y and Koshizaki N, "Fabrication of Oxide Base Nanostructures using Pulsed Laser Ablation  in Aqueous Solutions", Appl. Phys., 79  (2004), pp.1489-1492

8.  S. Faramarzi, M. R. Jalilian-Nosrati, S. Barcikowski," Fabrication of ZnO nanocomposites by picosecond laser ablation of zinc in tetrahydrofuran solution of thermoplastic polyurethane", J. of Theoretical & Appl. Phys. ,4-1 (2010), pp.9-16.

9.  Reza Zamiria , Azmi Zakariaa,1 , Hossein Abbastabar Ahangarb , Majid Darroudic, , Ali Khorsand Zakd , Gregor P.C." DrummenAqueous starch as a stabilizer in zinc oxide nanoparticle synthesis via laser ablation", J. of Alloys and Compounds 516 (2012), pp.41– 48 .

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7.

Authors:

Kalhapure Vrushali Arun

Paper Title:

Implementation of Carving Machine Controller Based on L293D

Abstract:  A design project of implementation of Carving Machine Controller  based on L293D platform is introduced in this paper. ARM (Advanced RISC Machines) is  the kernel processors of the control system which takes MATLAB  as the software development platform and implements to develop a complete independent system that will automatically carve names or any other design on front surface of thermacol as a material. L293D is selected as motor driving IC of numerical control device and ARM7 as central processing unit of controller. The carving machine with low cost, high speed, good accuracy with easy HMI human machine interaction. It is proved that the control system can effectively improve the efficiency and the machining quality of carving machine.

Keywords:
 ARM7, Carving machine, HMI, MATLAB.


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