Abstract: Conventional flywheel system uses a single rim flywheel. The performance of the flywheel depends upon its mass, so also it encounters a lot of air friction and leads to more in-efficiency and more occupation. Flywheel releases stored energy by applying torque to a mechanical load, thereby decreasing the flywheels rotational speed. The dissertation work shows the flywheel optimum design model which fulfils minimum criteria of inertia result into safe and efficient working. In this study work on CAD base design and analysis with experimental base model generation in a feasible area of design. For a optimum design consideration of flywheel compare parameters like torque, power, efficiency with respective to speed. The experimental study and analysis shows the feasible area of design with torque Vs speed comparison by showing no changed in a considering design parameter as per the conventional design. The Power and Efficiency Vs Speed characteristics comparison shows that there is approximately in between seven to eight percentage increase in power output and five to six percentage efficient than the conventional flywheel respectively which will also result in increasing fuel economy of the engine efficient.
Keywords: Compact, Conventional, Efficiency, Power, Torque
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Abstract: This paper explores the effect of solution and electrospinning parameters on the morphology, mechanical properties and surface characteristics of Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) electrospun nanofiber mats. PAN/DMF (Dimethylformamide) solutions with different concentrations were electrospun under various parameters. The results show that the average fiber diameter increase from 208 nm to 881 nm with an increase in PAN concentration from 6 wt% to 12 wt%. Feed rate has inconsistent trend on the fiber diameter; however with increasing feed rate from 0.8 ml/hr to 1.4 ml/hr, the average fiber diameter more than doubledfrom400nm to 895nm. Average fiber diameter decreased slightly from 383 nm to 332 nm up to a certain threshold value of voltage, and then increased significantly to 750 nm when voltage was increased beyond this threshold. Somewhat surprisingly, when the distance between needle tip and collector was increased from 100mm to 150 mm, average fiber diameter increased almost four times (200 to 750 nm).Increasing the needle diameter was found to decrease average fiber diameter and has a direct effect on Taylor cone shape and jet length. The increase in PAN concentration from 6 to 12% increased the tensile strength, failure strength and ductility of electrospun nanofiber mats by 346%, 229% and 504%, respectively. PAN concentrations have a significant effect on the wettability of the nanofiber mats as determined by the contact angle measurements. The electrospun mats became increasingly more hydrophobic with increase in PAN concentration.
Keywords: PAN, electrospinning, nanofiber morphology, solution and process variables, mat.
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Abstract: This work was devoted for producing ZnO nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation (PLA) of Zn metal plate in the aqueous environment of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) using Q-Switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser with wavelength= 1064 nm, Rep. rate= 10 Hz, Pulse duration =6 ns and laser energy 50 mJ. Solution of nanoparticles is found stable in the colloidal form for a long time. The effect of ablation time on the optical and structure of ZnO was studied is characterized by UV-visible absorption. UV-visible absorption spectrum has four peaks at 256, 259,265,322 nm for ablation time (5, 10, 15, and 20 sec) respectively, our results show that UV–vis spectra show a blue shift in the presence of CTAB with decrease the ablation time and blue shift indicated to get smaller size of nanoparticles. The blue shift in the absorption edge indicates the quantum confinement property of nanoparticles. Also FTIR transmittance spectra of ZnO2 nanoparticles prepared in these states show a characteristic ZnO absorption at 435–445cm−1.
Keywords: Ablation time, CTAB solution, pulsed laser ablation technique, Zinc oxide nanoparticles.
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