Abstract: The Infrastructure sector in India plays a vital role in the economic progress of the country. The need for achieving quality of the finished product in the public infrastructure is very important. Quality is an essential element for sustainable infrastructure development. Quality in its simplest form can be defined as ‘meeting the customer expectations’. This study is intended to provide clients, consultants and contractors with necessary information needed to better manage the quality of a public infrastructure construction projects by identify the factors that affect process quality of projects and to rank them by degree of importance. Certain organisations are identified and a questionnaire survey was carried out there. Then the data’s from the organisation was collected. The ranking of the factors is done by using Relative Importance Index. Using that data’s the major factors that affecting the quality have to be identified. Then from the results suitable suggestions was given to the organisations for improving their product & service quality
Keywords: Infrastructure, Construction, Quality.
1. Abdol R. Chini.,& Hector E. Valdez. (2003) “ISO 9000 and the U.S. Construction Industry”,J. Manage. Eng.
2. Adnan Enshassi Sherif Mohamed & Saleh Abushaban. (2009) “Factors Affecting the performance of Construction Projects in the Gaza Strip”, Journal of Civil Engineering and Management.
3. David Arditi.,& H. Murat Gunaydin. (1998) “Factors that affect process Quality in the life cycle of building projects”,J. Constr. Eng. Manage, ASCE.
4. John E. Shively(1990) “Survey of Quality-assurance procedures within consultant industry”,J. Manage. Eng.
5. K. N. Jha.,& K. C. Iyer. (2006) “Critical Factors Affecting Quality Performance in Construction Projects” Total Quality Management
6. Mohammad Mehdi Mortaheb., YeganehAmini., Amir HoseinYounesian., & PeymanSoltani. (2013) “Impacts of Engineering Work Quality on Project Success”,Social and Behavioral Sciences.
7. RefaatH & Abdel Razek. (1998) “Quality improvement in egypt: Methodology and Implementation”,J. Constr. Eng. Manage, ASCE.
8. Tarek Elghamrawy & Tomoyashibayama. (2008) “Total Quality Management Implementation in the Egyptian Construction Industry”,J. Manage. Eng
Abstract: Nanotechnology is a cutting-edge research in materials, energy, sensors, biotechnology and defence systems. One of the crucial bottlenecks of modern technology is cost and scalability. In this respect, Graphene Oxide (GO) has gained significant attention. GO is often described as an electrical insulator, due to the disruption of its sp2 bonding network. In order to recover the honeycomb hexagonal lattice and the electrical conductivity, the reduction of the GO has to be achieved. This remains an important property when mixing with polymers or ceramics matrixes to improve their electrical and mechanical properties. The GO used in this study was prepared by and modified Hummer’s method. The structural properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction. The optical properties were studied by UV-Vis absorption spectra and FT-IR spectroscopy; furthermore, scanning and transmission microscopy analysis was done to study its morphology. In the study we successfully synthesized GO by modified Hummer’s method, and the results indicated higher interlayer spacing.
Keywords: Graphene Oxide, Electrical insulator, X-ray diffraction, Modified Hummer’s method
1. William S. Hummers Jr. and Richard E. Offeman, Preparation of Graphitic Oxide, Journal of the American Chemical Society. 8 (1958) 1339-1339.
2. Paulchamy B; Arthi G; Lignesh BD, A Simple Approach to Stepwise Synthesis of graphene Oxide Nanomaterial, Journal of Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology. 6 (2015).
3. Dreyer, Daniel R.; Park, Sungjin, Bielawski, Christopher W., Ruoff, Rodney S. The chemistry of graphene oxide, advanced chemical review. 39 (2009) 228-240.
4. WenguangTu, Yong Zhou and ZhigangZou, Versatile Graphene-Promoting Photo catalytic Performance of Semiconductors: Basic Principles, Synthesis, Solar Energy Conversion, and Environmental Applications, Advanced Functional Materials. (2013) 4996–5008.
5. Hengchang Bi, Kuibo Yin, Xiao Xie, Jing Ji, Shu Wan, Litao Sun, Mauricio Terrones Mildred S. Dresselhaus, Ultrahigh humidity sensitivity of graphene oxide, Scientific Reports. 3 (2013) 2714-2720.
6. Cheng-Long Zhao, Ming Qin, and Qing-An Huang, Humidity Sensing Properties of the Sensor Based on Graphene Oxide Films with Different Dispersion Concentrations, IEEE, (2011) 129-132.
7. Avery Luedtke, Ph.D, Applications of Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide Aldrich Materials Science, Sigma-Aldrich Co. LLC.
8. Yanwu Zhu, ShanthiMurali, WeiweiCai,, Xuesong Li, Ji Won Suk, Jeffrey R. Potts; Rodney S. Ruoff, Graphene and Graphene Oxide: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications, Advanced Materials Journal. 22 (2010) 3906-3924.
9. Deepak K. Pandey, Ting Fung Chung, G. Prakash, R. Piner, Yong P. Chen, R. Reifenberger, Folding and cracking of graphene oxide sheets upon deposition, Surface Science. 605(2011) 1669-1675.
10. Ji Chen, Bowen Yao, Chun Li, Gaoquan Shi, An improved Hummers method for eco-friendly synthesis of graphene oxide, Carbon. 64 (2013) 225-229.
11. Li, D.; Müller, M. B.; Gilje, S.; Kaner, R. B.; Wallace, G. G. Nat. Nanotechnol. 3 (2008) 101–105.
12. Skoog, D. A, Haller, F. J, Niemann, T. A. Principles of Instrumental Analysis, Hartcourt Brace & Company: Philadelphia, 1998.
13. Karousis, N, Economopous, S. P, Sarantopoulou, E, Tagmatarchis, N. Carbon. 48 (2010), 854–860.
14. T. Noguchi and M. Sugiura, Biochem, Flash-Induced FT-IR Difference Spectra of the Water Oxidizing Complex in Moderately Hydrated Photosystem II Core Films: Effect of Hydration Extent on S-State Transitions, Biochemistry, 41, (2002) 2322-2330.
15. Changjing Fu, Guogang Zhao, Haijun Zhang, Shuang Li, Evaluation and Characterization of Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanosheets as Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries, 8, (2013) 6269-6280.