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Volume-3 Issue-4

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Volume-3 Issue-4, June 2016, ISSN: 2347-6389 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

Page No.



Jaya Bharti, Arshali Sasi, C. Sasi Kumar

Paper Title:

Promising Nature of MoO3 Nanostructures in Gas Sensing Applications – A Review

Abstract:   Molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) is a transition metal oxide with a wide band gap. It is an n-type semiconductor material with an oxygen deficiency. MoO3 used as a sensing element for many of the reducing and oxidizing gases and proved to be a promising candidate for the same. Many literatures are available in this context; out of which some are explained in this article. This discussion covers the gas sensing response of different type of nanostructures of molybdenum trioxide and selectivity of particular structure toward the gas being sensed. It also includes the graphical representation of the variation of sensitivity/sensor response with the concentration of test gas. Lastly conclusions have been made on the basis of the discussion given in the following sections.

  Sensing mechanism, Gas sensing response of Molybdenum trioxide, MoO3 Nanostructures


1.         R. John Bosco Balaguru, Mimic of a Gas sensor, Metal Oxide Gas Sensing Mechanism, Factors Influencing the Sensor Performance and Role of nanomaterials based gas sensors, NPTEL – Electrical & Electronics Engineering – Semiconductor Nanodevices.
2.         Yu-Feng Sun 2012, Metal Oxide Nanostructures and Their Gas Sensing Properties: A Review, Sensors 2012.

3.         S. Barazzouk 2006, MoO3-based sensor for NO, NO2 and CH4 detection., Sensors and Actuators B 119 (2006) 691–694

4.         M.B. Rahmani, November 2009, Gas sensing properties of thermally evaporated lamellar MoO3, Sensors and Actuators B 145 (2010)

5.         Shouli Bai, 2012 , Ultrasonic synthesis of MoO3 nanorods and their gas sensing properties., Sensors and Actuators B 174 (2012) 51– 58

6.         Rao M.C.2013, Review Paper - Structural Stoichiometry and Phase Transitions of MoO3 Thin Films for Solid State Microbatteries, Research Journal of Recent Sciences , Vol. 2(4), 67-73, April (2013)

7.         H. Bhavani Naga Prasanna 2014, Structural, Morphological, Optical & Infrared properties of nanocrystalline MoO3 thin films, International Journal of ChemTech Research Vol.6, No.3, pp 1988-1990, May-June 2014

8.         Manal M.Y.A. Alsaif , November 2013, Two dimensional α-MoO3 nanoflakes obtained using solvent-assisted grinding and sonication method: Application for H2 gas sensing., Sensors and Actuators B 192 (2014) 196– 204

9.         S.S. Sunu,  Electrical conductivity and gas sensing properties of MoO3, Sensors and Actuators B 101 (2004) 161–174

10.      Shouli Bai, 2014, Intrinsic characteristic and mechanism in enhancing H2S sensing of Cd-doped -MoO3 nanobelts. Sensors and Actuators B 204 (2014) 754–762

11.      E. Comini 2000, Carbon monoxide response of molybdenum oxide thin films deposited by different techniques, Sensors and Actuators B 68 2000. 168–174

12.      Arnab Ganguly, March 2007, Synthesis, characterization and gas sensitivity of MoO3 nanoparticles., Bulletin of Material Science, Vol. 30, No. 2, April 2007, pp. 183–185

13.      K. Galatsis , 2002, Comparison of single and binary oxide MoO3,TiO2 and WO3 Sol- gel gas sensors  , Sensors and Actuators B 83, 2001

14.      Elisabeth Comini , December 2005 ,Metal oxide nano-crystals for gas sensing, Review, Analytica Chimica Acta 568 (2006) 28–40

15.      S. YANG, September 2014, Controlled Synthesis of Micro/Nano MoO3 by Physical Vapor Deposition and Its Gas Sensing Properties to NH3 Gas at Room Temperature. Ferroelectrics, 477: 112–120, 2015

16.      Antonella M. Taurino, ,2006 , Synthesis, electrical characterization, and gas sensing properties of molybdenum oxide nanorods ., Applied  Physics Letter 88, 152111 (2006)

17.      G.E. Buono-Core, Synthesis and characterization of thin molybdenum oxide films prepared from molybdenum dioxo tropolonate precursors by photochemical metal-organic deposition (PMOD) and its evaluation as ammonia gas sensors., Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids 387 (2014) 21–27

18.      A.K. Prasad 2003, Comparison of sol–gel and ion beam deposited MoO3 thin film gas sensors for selective ammonia detection, Sensors and Actuators B 93 (2003) 25–30

19.      D. V. Ahire , Sep. 2012, Preparation of MoO3 Thin Films by Spray Pyrolysis and Its Gas Sensing Performance ., International Journal On Smart Sensing And Intelligent Systems, Vol. 5, No. 3, September 2012

20.      Won-Sik Kim , Gas sensing properties of MoO3 nanoparticles synthesized by solvo-thermal method., Journal of  Nanoparticles Research (2010) 12:1889–189

21.      Longqiang Wang,, December 2013, Synthesis of Crystalline/Amorphous Core/Shell MoO3 Composites through a Controlled Dehydration Route and Their Enhanced Ethanol Sensing Properties., Crystal Growth & Design

22.      E. Comini 2003, Response to ethanol of thin films based on Mo and Ti oxides deposited by sputtering, Sensors and Actuators B 93 (2003) 409–415

23.      Li-li Sui, November 2014, Construction of three-dimensional flower-like  -MoO3 with hierarchical structure for highly selective triethylamine sensor., Sensors and Actuators B 208 (2015) 406–414






Abdelzaher E. A. Mostafa, Waleed M.F. Tawhed, Mohamed R. Elshahat

Paper Title:

Developing New Design Criteria of Asphalt Pavement Mix Using Nano-Materials and Polymer-Materials

Abstract:    In the context of the wide demand of high quality of bitumen, this research was initiated with the objective of enhancing the asphalt mix properties. Variable additives percentages of nanomaterial and polymer material were investigated, experimentally, in order to determine their effect on asphalt properties. Three nano materials (i.e. nano-silica, nano0kaolinite and nano-montmorlinit) and three polymer materials were considered (i.e. SBS, polypropylene, and polyethylene). Modified specimens (with 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9% of nano and polymer material) were prepared. Rheological properties tests were conducted (i.e. penetration, softening, flash point and viscosity). In addition, mechanical properties tests were carried out (i.e. Marshall, compression, and indirect tensile tests). Results were obtained and analyzed. They indicted that additives enhanced rheological and mechanical properties of asphalt mix.

 Hot Asphalt Mix; Polymerized-Materials


1.         Mostafa, A.E., (2016). “Examining the Performance of Hot Mix Asphalt Using Nano- Materials” International Organization of Scientific Research (IOSRJEN) ISSN(e): 2250-3021, Volume-06, Issue-02, pp 25-34. L.H. Lewandowski,. Polymer Modification of Paving Asphalt Binders. Rubber Chemistry and Technology, 67(3): 447, July-August, 1994.
2.         Asphalt Institute; Eurobitume., (2011) “The bitumen industry - A global perspective” (2nd Edition). Lexington, Kentucky: Asphalt Institute; Brussels, Belgium: Eurobitume.

3.         Becker, Y., Méndez, M.P., Rodríguez, Y., (2001). “Polymer modified asphalt”. Vision Technological; 9(1):39-50.

4.         Shen, J.A., (2011). “Pavement Performance of Asphalt and Asphalt Concrete”.  China Communication Press, Beijing.

5.         Abdel-Lateef, T.H., El-Hamrawy, S.A., Mahmoud, A.A.H., and Naglaa, M.K., (2009). “"The Use of Additives in Improved Pavement Mix Dedign".  PHD. Thesis  in Civil Engineering.

6.         Qing, X.Z., hui, C.L. and Mei, L. (2009). “Rheological Property of Bitumen Modified by the Mixture of the Mechanochemically Devulcanized Tire Rubber Powder and SBS”, Journal of Materials in Civil Engg., ASCE, 21(11), 699705.

7.         Romeo, E., Birgisson, B. and Montepara, A. (2010). “The effect of polymer modification on hot mix asphalt fracture at tensile loading conditions”, International Journal of Pavement Engineering, Taylor & Francis, 11(5), 403-413.

8.         Ghasemia, M., Marandia, S.M.B., Tahmooresib, M., Kamalia, R.J., and  Taherzadec, R., (2012). “Modification of Stone Matrix Asphalt with Nano-Sio2” Acivil Engineering Department, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran Binternational Center For Science, ISSN 2090-4304 Journal of Basic And Applied  Scientific Research, J. Basic. Appl. Sci. Res., 2(2)1338-1344.

9.         Yazdani, A., Pourjafar, S,. (2012). “Optimization of Asphalt Binder Modified with PP/SBS/Nanoclay Nanocomposite Using Taguchi Method”, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology Vol:6 -07-27

10.      Walters R.C., Fini, E.H.,  and Abu-Lebdeh, T., (2014). “Enhancing Asphalt Rheological Behavior and Aging Susceptibility Using Bio-Char and Nano-Clay”, Department of Civil, Architectural And Environmental Engineering, North Carolina A and T State University, Greensboro, Nc 27411, Usa. American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 7 (1): 66-76, 2014 ISSN: 1941-7020 ©2014 Science Publication Doi:10.3844/Ajeassp.2014.66.76 Published Online 7 (1).

11.      BS, 598-110, (1998). “Sampling and examination of bituminous mixtures for roads and other paved areas”. Methods of test for the determination of wheel-tracking rate and depth.






B. A. Elsayed, M. A. Hegazy, H. M. H. Abd El-Bary, Ahmed A. Abdel Salam

Paper Title:

Evaluating Synthesized Schiff base as Corrosion Inhibitor on Carbon Steel in 0.5 M HCl and 0.5 M H2SO4

Abstract: The inhibition effect of synthesized schiff base on the corrosion of carbon steel in (0.5 M HCl and 0.5 M H2SO4) was studied at different temperatures (25–55 ºC) by weight loss, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization methods. The carbon steel surface morphology was investigated by SEM. The obtained results showed that the prepared schiff base is excellent inhibitor in (0.5 M HCl and 0.5 M H2SO4) and the inhibition efficiency (η) increases with the inhibitor concentration, but it decreases with increasing temperature. The adsorption of inhibitor on the surface of carbon steel is mixed chemical and physical adsorption and found to obey the Langmuir adsorption isotherm equation. Thermodynamic parameters have been obtained by adsorption theory. Polarization curves showed that the synthesized inhibitor is mixed-type inhibitor in both hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid. Data obtained from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies were analyzed to model-inhibition process through appropriate equivalent circuit model. Potentiodynamic polarization studies have been shown that the inhibitor acts as a mixed type of inhibitor. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) confirmed the protection of the carbon steel surface by the inhibitor.

 (0.5 M HCl and 0.5 M H2SO4), (EIS), SEM., (25–55 ºC), (η), (EIS), Potentiodynamic, hydrochloric


1.         M. ElAzhar, B. Mernari, M. Traisnel, F. Bentiss, M. Lagrene´ e, Corrosion inhibition of mild steel by the new class of inhibitors [2,5-bis(n-pyridyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazoles] in acidic media , 2001,Corrosion Sci,vol 43, 2229.
2.         H. Derya Lece, Kaan C. Emregul, Orhan Atakol, Inhibitive Effect of N, N-bis (2-chloroethylaminobenzaldehyde) Ethylthiosemicarbazone on the Corrosion of Mild Steel in 1N H2SO4, 2008Corr. Sci. ,  50 1460–1468.

3.         H. Shokry, M. Yuasa, I. Sekine, R.M. Issa, H.Y. El-Baradie, G.K. Gomma, Corrosion inhibition of mild steel by Schiff base compounds in various aqueous solutions Corros.Sci, 1998, 40, 2173–2186.

4.         M. Lashgari, M.-R. Arshadi, S. Miandari, The enhancing power of iodide on corrosion prevention of mild steel in the presence of a synthetic-soluble Schiff-base: Electrochemical and surface analyses, Electrochimica , 2010 , Acta 55 6058–6063.

5.         S. Bilgic, N. Caliskan, J. Appl, Corrosion Inhibition Properties of orepinephrine Molecules on Mild Steel in Acidic Media Electrochemica, 2001, 31, 79–83.

6.         Labena A, Hegazy MA, Horn H, Müller E, The biocidal effect of a novel synthesized gemini surfactant on environmental sulfidogenic bacteria: planktonic cells and biofilms. Mater Sci Eng, 2015, 47,367–375.

7.         M.A. Hegazy, A.S. El-Tabei, A.H. Bedair, M.A. Sadeq, An investigation of three novel nonionic surfactants as corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in 0.5 MH2SO4, Corros. Sci, 2012 54, 219–230.

8.         M.A. Hegazy, M.F. Zaky, Inhibition effect of novel nonionic surfactants on the corrosion of carbon steel in acidic medium, Corros. Sci., 2010, 52, 1333–1341.

9.         M.A. Migahed, A.M. Abdul-Raheim, A.M. Atta, W. Brostow, Synthesis and evaluation of a new water soluble corrosion inhibitor from recycled poly(ethylene terphethalate),Mater. Chem. Phys., 2010,121, 208–214.

10.      E.E. Oguzie, Y. Li, F.H. Wang, Effect of 2-amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid (cysteine) on the corrosion behaviour of low carbon steel in sulphuric acid Electrochim.,2007, Acta 53 ,909–914.

11.      M.A. Hegazy, M. Abdallah, H. Ahmed, Novel cationic gemini surfactants as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel pipelines Corros. Sci., 2010, 52, 2897–2904.

12.      S. Ghareba, S. Omanovic, and Interaction of 12-aminododecanoic acid with a carbon steel surface: Towards the development of ‘green’ corrosion inhibitors Corros. Sci., 2010, 52, 2104–2113.

13.      A.Y. El-Etre, J. Inhibition of acid corrosion of carbon steel using aqueous extract of olive leaves, Colloid Interface Sci., 2007, 314, 578–583.

14.      G.Quartarone,M. Battilana, L. Bonaldo, T. Tortato, Investigation of the inhibition effect of indole-3-carboxylic acid on the copper corrosion in 0.5 M H2SO4 , 2008,Corros. Sci. 50, 3467–3474.

15.      Eugenio A,Flores, Octavio Olivares, Natalya V. Likhanova, Marco .Dominguez-Aguilar, Noel Nava, Diego Guzman-Lucero, Monica Corrales, Sodiumphalamates as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in aqueous hydrochloric acid solution Corros. Sci., 2011, 53, 3899–3913.

16.      S.K. Shukla, M.A. Quraishi, 4-Substituted anilinomethylpropionate: New and efficient corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution Corros. Sci. 51 (2009) 1990–1997.

17.      N. Putilova, S. Balezin, V. Barannik, Metallic Corrosion Inhibitors, Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK, 1960.

18.      M. A. Hegazy Eid M. S. Azzam Nadia G. Kandil A. M. Badawi R. M. Sami Corrosion Inhibition of Carbon Steel Pipelines by Some New Amphoteric and Di-cationic Surfactants in Acidic solution by Chemical and Electrochemical Methods , Journal of Surfactants and Detergents,2016,19,864-866.

19.      H.H. Hassan, E. Abdelghani, M.A. M.A. Amin,Inhibition of mild steel corrosion in hydrochloric acid solution by triazole derivatives: Part I. Polarization and EIS studies , Electrochim. Acta, 2007, 52, 6359–6366.

20.      A.M. Abdel-Gabar, B.A. Abd-El-Nabey, I.M. Sidahmed, A.M. El-Zayady, M.Saadawy, Inhibitive action of some plant extracts on the corrosion of steel in acidic media Corros. Sci., 2006, 48, 2765–2779.

21.      K.F. Khaled, Molecular simulation, quantum chemical calculations and electrochemical studies for inhibition of mild steel by triazoles, Electrochim. Acta, 2008, 53, 3484–3492.

22.      S.V. Lamaka, M.L. Zheludkevich, K.A. Yasakau, R. Serra, S.K. Poznyak, M.G.S.Ferreira, Nanoporous titania interlayer as reservoir of corrosion inhibitors for coatings with self-healing ability Prog. Org. Coat., 2007, 58, 127–135.

23.      H. Duan, K. Du, C. Yan, F. Wang, Electrochemical corrosion behavior of composite coatings of sealed MAO film on magnesium alloy AZ91D,Electrochim. Acta, 2006, 51, 2898–2908.

24.      M. Mahdavian, S. Ashhari, Corrosion inhibition performance of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole and 2-mercaptobenzoxazole compounds for protection of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution, Electrochim. Acta, 2010, 55, 1720–1724.

25.      N.A. Negm, M.F. Zaki, Corrosion inhibition efficiency of nonionic Schiff base amphiphiles of p-aminobenzoic acid for aluminum in 4N HCl , J. Colloid Surf. A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspec. , 2008, 322, 97–102.

26.      F. Bentiss, M. Lebrini, M. Lagrenee, Thermodynamic characterization of metal dissolution and inhibitor adsorption processes in mild steel/2,5-bis(n-thienyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazoles/hydrochloric acid system, Corros. Sci., 2005, 47, 2915–2931

27.      E.A. Noor, A.H. Al-Moubaraki, Mater., Thermodynamic study of metal corrosion and inhibitor adsorption processes in mild steel/1-methyl-4[4 (-X)-styryl pyridinium iodides/hydrochloric acid systems , Chem. Phys.,2008, 110 , 145–154.

28.      A.M. Badawi, M.A. Hegazy, A.A. El-Sawy, H.M. Ahmed, W.M. Kamel, Mater., Novel quaternary ammonium hydroxide cationic surfactants as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel and as biocides for sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) ,Chem. Phys.,2010,124 , 458–465.

29.      M.S. Morad, A.M. Kamal El-Dean, 2, 2’-Dithiobis (3-cyano-4, 6-dimethylpyridine): A new class of acid corrosion inhibitors for mild steel ,Corros. Sci., 2006, 48, 3398–3412.

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31.      M. Behpour, S.M. Ghoreishi, M. Salavati-Niasari, B. Ebrahimi, Mater., Evaluating two new synthesized S–N Schiff bases on the corrosion of copper in 15% hydrochloric acid, Chem.Phys. , 2008,107, 153–157.

32.      Lj. Vracar, D.M. Drazic, Adsorption and corrosion inhibitive properties of some organic molecules on iron electrode in sulfuric acid, Corros. Sci., 2002, 44, 1669–1680.






Saurav Kumar, R.K. Pandey, Sanjeev Singh, Neha

Paper Title:

Effect of PVC Waste and Replacement in Construction of Flexible Pavement

Abstract: Bituminous pavement concrete is composite material used in construction of road pavement, airport runway and parking. It contains bitumen and aggregate mixed together, laid in layers and compacted.  The steady increment in highway traffic volume density and remarkable variation in daily and seasonal temperature causes rapid detoriation and failure of pavement surface and course. Looking into the pavement condition it is worth to think of some admixes to be used for modification in constituents and mixture which must satisfy strength and economical aspects.  It is worth to note that increased use of PVC in society is raising serious environmental issues; I have tried to mix PVC waste with bitumen for preparation of pavements as a little solution for the environmental pollution.  The bituminous concrete mixes prepared with defined volume of PVC and aggregate as per the codes of IRC were used to prepare samples for testing. The samples were tested for Marshall Properties like stability, flow volume, unit weight, air voids etc and the optimum PVC content for the choosed bitumen (80/100) were achieved.

Bituminous, pavement, (80/100), PVC, Properties like stability, Looking, IRC, volume, modification


1.         Aslam Shahan-ur-Rahman “Use of Waste Plastic in Construction of Flexible Pavement”, New Building Materials & Construction World, 2009
2.         Das, A., (1998). Analytical design of bituminous pavements based on field performance, unpublished PhD thesis, Civil Engg. Dept., IIT, Kharagpur

3.         Justo C.E.G. and Veeraragavan A “Utilization of Waste Plastic Bags in Bituminous Mix for Improved Performance of Roads”, Centre for Transportation Eng ineering, Bangalore University, Bangalore, India, 2002.

4.         T. Awwad Mohammad and Sheeb Lina, the Use of Polyethylene in Hot Asphalt Mixtures, American Journal of Applied Sciences 4 (6) pp-390-396, 2007.

5.         Annual Book of ASTM Standards, 1999. ASTM D-6373, Standard Specification for Performance Graded Asphalt Binder, pp: 1102-1136.