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Volume-2 Issue-6

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Volume-2 Issue-6, May 2015, ISSN: 2347-6389 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd.

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Mostafa Mohammadi, Alireza Kashani Nia

Paper Title:

Simulation of Voltage Change Effects in Ion Channels in order to Reproduction of Action Potential by MATLAB Software

Abstract: In this study, the effects of voltage change in ion channels in order to reproduction of action potential and its simulation by Hodgkin Huxley model have been explored . The simulation has been performed by using the Matlab software . By writing Hodgkin Huxley equations codes and applying the parameters values of it , action potential waveform to obtain. Then by reducing the amount of excitation current, the lowest value that the action potential is placed on the eve of the production will be obtain. The next step is to stabilize the input excitation current to the value obtained and then change the sudiom , potasiom and leakage channels voltage. According to the characteristics of each ion channels and voltage variations on them, action potential will start to reproduce. Thus we have shown, with the decline of the excitation current for reasons such as some illness, we can reproduce the action potential and propagate it inside of axon by changing the ion channels voltage.

Action potential, Axon, Hodgkin Huxley model, Excitation current, Matlab simulation.


1. Robert Plonsey , Roger C. Barr “Bioelectricity A Quantitative Approach ”Duke University Durham, North Carolina USA
2. Arthur C. Guyton , John E. Hall “ the text book of Medical Physiology”

3. N. R. Carlson, Foundations of Physiological Psychology, Allyn & Bacon, 2004, pp. 53-55.

4. Mostafa Mohammadi, Alireza Kashani Nia“Design and simulation of an acoustic micro prob made of piezoelectric materials to stimulate nerve tissue and generate action potential ” International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), Vol. 4 Issue 04, April-2015

5. Kenneth Leander Anderson Jr, Jackie Chism, Quarail Hale, Paul Klockenkemper, Chelsi Pinkett, Christopher Smith, and Dr. Dorjsuren Badamdorj“Mathematical Modeling Action Potential in Cell Processes” June 21, 2013

6. S. Alford, "The Hodgkin-Huxley equations.".Cell and Molecular Neurobiology.

7. Hodgkin, A.L. and A.F. Huxley, A quantitative description of membrane current and its application to conduction and excitation in nerve. J Physiol, 1952. 117(4): p. 500-44.

8. Vladimir Ruzov “neuro modulation : action potential modeling ”






Suha I. Al-Nassar

Paper Title:

Study the Effect of Molarity on the Synthesis Nanoparticles by Liquid-Phase Laser Ablation Technique

Abstract: This work was focused on the studying the effect of molarity on the producing ZnO nanoparticles by Liquid –Phase Pulsed Laser Ablation (LP-PLA) of Zn metal plate in the aqueous environment of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) using femtosecond laser (Ti-Sapharie has wavelength= 800 nm, rep. rate= 1K Hz, Pulse duration =130 fs and laser energy pulse 0.5 mJ. The effect of molarity on the optical and structure of ZnO was studied is characterized by UV-visible absorption. UV-visible absorption spectrum has three peaks at 220, 210 ,204 nm for different values of molarity (10-2, 10-3 and 10-4) respectively, our results show that UV–visible spectra show a blue shift with decrease the molarity of CTAB solution because this leads to decrease the concentration of ZnO NPs and decreases the the aggregate of surfactant molecules dispersed in liquid collide ,and blue shift indicated to get smaller size of nanoparticles. The blue shift in the absorption edge indicates the quantum confinement property of nanoparticles. Also FTIR transmittance spectra of ZnO2 nanoparticles prepared in these states show a characteristic ZnO absorption at 435–455cm−1.

Ablation time, CTAB solution, pulsed laser ablation technique, Zinc oxide nanoparticles.


1. V. Piriyawong, V. Thongpool , P. Asanithi, P. Limsuwan, "Effect of Laser Pulse Energy on the Formation of Alumina Nanoparticles Synthesized by Laser Ablation in Water ", Surf. Sci. Direct , 32 (2012), pp. 1107-1112.
2. Yoshie Ishikawa, Yoshiki Shimizu, Takeshi Sasaki, Naoto Koshizaki, "Preparation of zinc oxide nanorods using pulsed laser ablation in water media at high temperature", J. of Coll. and Interface Sci. 300 (2006), pp. 612–615.

3. S. I. Alnassar , E. Akman, B. G. Oztoprak, E. Kacar, O. Gundogdu, A. Khaleel, and A. Demir, "Study of the fragmentation phenomena of TiO2 nanoparticles produced by femtosecond laser ablation in aqueous media", Opt. & Laser Tech., 51 (2013), pp. 17–23.

4. Adel K. Mahmoud, Zainab Fadhi, Suha Ibrahim Al-nassar, Furat Ibrahim Husein, Erhan Akman and Arif Demir, "Synthesis of Zirconia Nanoparticles in Distilled Water Solution by Laser Ablation Technique", J. of Mat. Sci. & Eng. B 3 (6) ( 2013), pp. 364-368.

5. R.K. Swarnkar, S.C. Singh and R. Gopal, "Optical Characterizations Of Copper Oxide Nanomaterial" , International Conference on Optics and Photonics, Chandigarh, India, 30 Oct.-1 Nov.( 2009) .

6. Z Liu1, Y Yuan, S Khan, A Abdolvand, DWhitehead, M Schmidt and L Li," Generation of Metal-Oxide Nanoparticles using Continuous-Wave Fibre Laser Ablation in Liquid", J. Micromech. Microeng., 19 (2009), pp. 1-7.

7. Sasaki T, Liang C, Nichols W T, Shimizu Y and Koshizaki N, "Fabrication of Oxide Base Nanostructures using Pulsed Laser Ablation in Aqueous Solutions", Appl. Phys., 79 (2004), pp.1489-1492

8. S. Faramarzi, M. R. Jalilian-Nosrati, S. Barcikowski," Fabrication of ZnO nanocomposites by picosecond laser ablation of zinc in tetrahydrofuran solution of thermoplastic polyurethane", J. of Theoretical & Appl. Phys. ,4-1 (2010), pp.9-16.

9. Reza Zamiria , Azmi Zakariaa,1 , Hossein Abbastabar Ahangarb , Majid Darroudic, , Ali Khorsand Zakd , Gregor P.C." DrummenAqueous starch as a stabilizer in zinc oxide nanoparticle synthesis via laser ablation", J. of Alloys and Compounds 516 (2012), pp.41– 48 .

10. Q.A., M.A. Gondal, Z.H. Yamani, T.A. Saleh, "Spectroscopic characterization approach to study surfactants effect on ZnO2 nanoparticles synthesis by laser ablation process" ,Appl. Surf. Sci. 256 (2010), pp. 4661–4666.

11. S C SINGH, R K SWARNKAR and R GOPAL, " Zn/ZnO core/shell nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation in aqueous environment: Optical and structural characterizations", Bull. Mater. Sci., Vol. 33, No. 1, February 2010, pp. 21–26.






Jyoti Sankar Sahoo, Nirmal Kumar Rout

Paper Title:

Comparative Study on Low Power Barrel Shifter/Rotator at 45nm Technology

Abstract: As technology advances in the field of VLSI; the circuits are upgraded to less power consuming and of high speed. In modern digital signal processing (DSP) and graphics application the shifter is an important module. A Barrel shifter/rotator can be implemented exclusively for shifting and rotating operations individually or both at the same time and can be implemented by 2:1, 4:1, 8:1 etc. multiplexers units. Barrel shifter/rotator implemented using multiplexer unit can use it repeatedly thus reduce the amount of power consumption. In this paper initially the Barrel shifter/rotator circuit using multiplexer is implemented using Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) logic then the circuit is implemented by different low power techniques. Finally various designs are compared in terms of power and delay. All the designs are implemented in Cadence Virtuoso Tool at 45nm technology for its validation.

Barrel shifter, Pass transistor logic, LECTOR technique, Double gate MOSFET, Diode Free Adiabatic Logic, Low power

1. S. Das, S. P. Khatri, "A Timing driven approach to synthesize fast Barrel shifters.", IEEE Transactions on Circuit and Systems-II : Express Briefs, Vol.55, No. 1, January 2008.
2. S. Kotiyal, H. Thapliyal and N. Ranganathan, "Design of a reversible bidirectional Barrel shifter," 11th IEEE International Conference on Nanotechnology, 2011, pp 463-468.

3. N. Hanchate and N. Raghunathan, "LECTOR: a technique for leakage reduction in CMOS circuits," IEEE Transactions on VLSI systems, Volume.12, No. 2, Feb 2004.

4. Amara Amara, Oliver Rozeau, Editors, 2009. Planar Double-Gate Transistor from Technology to circuit, Springer. pp. 1-20.

5. M.R. Pillmeier, M.J. Schulte and E. George Walters III, "Design alternatives for Barrel shifters," Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 4791, pp 436-447, 2002.

6. M. Seckora, Barrel Shifter or Multiply/Divide IC Structure," U.S. Patent 5,465,222, November 1995.

7. J. Muwafi, G.Fettweis and H.Neff , "Circuit for Rotating , Left shifting or Right shifting Bits," U.S. Patent 5.978,822 Dec 1995.

8. P. Verma and R.A. Mishra,"Leakage Power and Delay analysis of LECTOR based CMOS circuits," 2nd IEEE International Conference on Computer and Communication Technology (ICCCT) , 2011.

9. G. Kumar and Atul S.M. Tripathi, "Design and simulation of CMOS cells using adiabatic technique for low power consumption," International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research ISSN: 2321-0869, Special Issue.

10. Tom, V.S. Muley and T. Vigneswaran, "Design of low power Barrel shifter and rotator using two phase clocked adiabatic static CMOS logic," International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, eISSN: 2319-1163, pISSN: 2321-7308.

11. R. Kushwah and S. Akashe, "Design and Analysis of Tuneable Analog Circuit using Double Gate MOSFET at 45nm CMOS Technology," 3rd IEEE International Advance Computing Conference (IACC), pp. 1589-1594, 2013.

12. Wong, H.S.P., et.al. 1998. Device design consideration for double gate, ground-plane, single- gated ultrathin. SOI MOSFET at the 25nm channel length generation, in IEDM. pp.407-410.

13. Nowak, E. et.al. 2004. Turning Silicon on its edge, IEEE circuits and Device Magazine. pp.20-31.






Raviraj Prakash Nagarkar

Paper Title:

Dispersion Analysis of Optical Fiber Using MATLAB

Abstract: Optical fiber is a dielectric waveguide, cylindrical in shape. It confines electromagnetic energy in the form of light within its surface and guides light by multiple internal reflections, provided the angle of incidence onto the core cladding interface is greater than the critical angle c. Dispersion of the transmitted optical signal causes distortion for both digital and analog transmission along optical fibers. When considering the major implementation of optical fiber transmission which involves some form of digital modulation, then dispersion mechanisms within the fiber cause broadening of the transmitted light pulses as they travel along the channel.

Dispersion, single mode fiber, multimode fiber.


1. Gerd Keiser, “Optical Fiber Communication”, 3rd edition, McGraw-Hill International Edition.
2. John M. Senior, “Optical Fiber Communications Principles and Practice”, 3rd edition, Prentice Hall, Pearson Education Ltd.

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7. M.R.Shenoy, K.Thygarajan and A.K.Ghatak, “Numerical Analysis of Optical Fibers using Matrix Approach” IEEE J.Lightwave Techn., vol-8, pp-1285-1291, 1988.

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9. Q.Li, “Propagation characteristics of single mode optical fibers with arbitrary refractive index profile: The finite quadratic element approach”, IEEE J.Lightwave Techn., vol-9, no-1, pp-22-26, 1991.

10. B.M.Azizur, j.Brian Devies “Review of Finite Element Methods for Microwave and optical Waveguides”, Proceedings of the IEEE., vol-9, no-10, pp-1442-1447, Oct-1991.

11. Masanori Koshiba, And Kazuhiro Inoue, “Simple and Efficient Finite-Element Analysis Of Microwave And Optical Waveguides”, IEEE Transactions On Microwave Theory And Techniques. Vol. 40. No. 2. February 1992.

12. J.N.Reddy, “An Introduction to Finite Element Method”, McGraw Hill, second edition, 1993.

13. B.M. Rahman, “Finite element analysis of optical waveguides”, Progress in electromagnetic research, PIER 10,187-216,1995.

14. Ronato C.Mesquita, Renato P.Souza “Object oriented platform for finite element preprocessor programming and design techniques”. Transaction on Magnetic, vol-34, no-5, pp-3407, Sept-98.

15. S. P. Survaiya, R. K. Shevgaonkar, “Dispersion Characteristics of an Optical Fiber Having Linear Chirp Refractive Index Profile”, Journal Of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 17, No. 10, October 1999.

16. Uday S. Dixit,“Finite Element Method: An Introduction”, Department Of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute Of Technology Guwahati-781 039, India.

17. Yasuhide Tsujii,masanori Koshiba “Curvilinear Hybrid edge/nodal elements with triangular shape for guided wave problems” J. of Light wave technology, vol-18, no-5, pp-737, May-2000.

18. Yasuhide Tsujii,masanori Koshiba “Finite element method using port truncation by perfectly matched layer boundary conditions for optical wave guide discontinuity problems” Journal of Light wave technology, vol-20, no-2, pp-463, Mar-2002.






Shashank Shastri

Paper Title:

Study of Geosynthetic Clay Liner Reinforced Mud Blocks

Abstract: In the present investigation attempt has been made to improve the strength of the black cotton soil mud bricks mixed with different content of lime by reinforcing the geogrid. The soil is collected from Naragund area of Bagalkot District. The circular (100mm diameter and 200mm depth; 150mm and 100mm depth) and rectangular (200mm x 100mm x 100mm) mud bricks are prepared with soil treated with 10, 12, 14 and 16 percent lime with the geogrid reinforcement at the middle depth of the brick. The compressive strength of the mud bricks is obtained by laboratory compression test apparatus. Considerable improvement in the compressive strength is observed in rectangular mud bricks with14% and 16% of lime content reinforced with geogrid and for circular mud bricks, the maximum compressive strength is observed at 12% lime content with geogrid reinforcement.

Black Cotton Soil, Lime, Geo-grid, Compressive strength, Rectangular blocks.


1. Robert M.Koerner “Bearing capacity of Hydrated Geosynthetic Clay liners” Journal on Geotechnical Engineering 121:82-85.1995
2. P.J.Fox “Bearing Capacity of Geosynthetic Clay Liners for Cover Soils of Varying Particle Size” International Journal on Geosynthetics Vol.3,No.4.1996

3. Mark D.Lagatta “Geo synthetic clay liners subjected to differential settlement” Journalof Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering May, 1997

4. Isaac Olufemi“Use of cement-sand admixture in laterite brick production for low cost housing”.Leonardo Electronic Journal of Practices and Technologies ISSN 1583-1078 2008

5. T.S.Umessh “ Control of dispersivity of soil using lime and cement” international journal of geology Issue 1,Volume 3 ,2009

6. K.Lange “The potential role of geo synthetic clay liners in mine water treatment system” Journal on Geo- Engineering centre at Queen’s-RMC, Queen’s University, Kingston, CAK7L 3N6, Canada 1october 2009.

7. PrakashParasivamurthy “Study of crumb rubber waste in cement stabilizedsoil blocks”.Professor C.M.R.T.U, R.V. Vidyanekatan, R.V.C.E, Bangalore.2010.

8. Dr S. M. Ali Jawaid “Rice Husk Ash - Lime Blended Building Bricks” International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 03, No. 02, April 2010, pp. 302-3092010.

9. HamedNiroumandKhairulAnuarKassim “Comparison of compressive strength in mud bricks with shred tires and concrete particle as sustainable materials” University Technology Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, Johor, Malaysia2010

10. PurbiSen, Mukesh and Mahabir Dixit “Evaluation of Strength Characteristics of Clayey Soil by Adding Soil Stabilizing Additives” International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904, Volume 04, No 06 SPL, October 2011, pp. 1060-1063 2011

11. R.Kerry Rowe “Effect of Geo synthetic clay liner properties on shrinkage when subjected to wet-dry cycles” journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, November 2011

12. Nilo Cesar Consoli “Variables Controlling Stiffness and Strength of Lime-Stabilized Soils” journal of geo technical and geo environmental engineering. 137:628-632, 2011.

13. Sujit Kumar Dash “Lime Stabilization of Soils: Reappraisal” journal of materials in civil engineering 24:707-714,2012.

14. GrytanSarkar “Fundamental study on materials for lime stabilized adobe: workability, stability and strength”.International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 05, No. 05 (01), October 2012.

15. Kabiraj and Mandal.U.K “Experimental investigation and feasibility study on stabilized compacted earth block using local resources”. International journal of civil and structural engineering Volume 2, No 3, 2012.

16. Ashish Kumar Prashar and Rinku Parshar “Comparative study of compressive strength of bricks made with various materials to clay bricks”. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 2, Issue 7, July 2012

17. N.Vamshi Mohan, Prof.P.V.V Satyanarayana “Performance of rice husk ash bricks”.International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-96222012

18. Paki Turgut.et.al “Manufacturing of building bricks without Portland cement” Journal of Cleaner Production37 361e367 2012

19. Dr.Jawdat k “Bearing capacity of Eccentrically Loaded Strip Footing on geogrid Reinforced Sand “Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences,vol.19,No.1,March 2012

20. D.E.Ewa, Jo.Ukpata“Investigation of compressive strength of commercial sand Crete bricks in calabar Nigeria”. International Journal of Engineering and Technology Volume 3 No. 4, April, 2013

21. SharmisthaChakraborthy,JoyanthaPal,Dr.Richi Prasad Sharma. “Comparative study of properties of manual and mechanized bricks and their strength behaviour as masonry”.International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, Volume 3, Issue 4, April 2013

22. Indian Standard - IS:2720 (Part 3/Sec 1) – (1980)Methods of test for soils, determination of specific gravity of soil. New Delhi, India.

23. Indian Standard - IS:2720 (Part 5) – (1985) Methods of test for soils, determination of liquid and plastic limit of soils. New Delhi, India.

24. Indian Standard - IS:2720 (Part 4) – (1985)Methods of test for soils, determination of grain size analysis of soil. New Delhi, India.

25. Indian Standard - IS:2720 (Part 7) – (1980) Methods of test for soils, determination of water content and dry density using light compaction. New Delhi, India.






Kosgiker G. M, Guddad S. G, Koli R. R

Paper Title:

Automation in Tissue Culture Industry

Abstract: The project is to do automation in tissue culture industries. The main purpose of this project is doing work on polyhouse automation, autoclave automation and making two AC’s ON-OFF each after 12hours delay .All automation work is mainly based on 89C51 microcontroller. The requirement is that to maintain the 70% humidity with outsource exhoust fan and water sprinkler. Autoclave machine is used for empty bottle sterilization and also for chemical filled bottle sterilization with 15lbs and 10lbs pressure for time 10 minutes and 20 minutes respectively. Making autoclave automatic with respect to time and pressure on the basis of weight of respective empty and chemically filled bottles.

Auto clave machine, Microcontroller, humidity, pressure and polyhouse automation.


1. Stipanicev D, Marasovic J. “Network Embedded Green House Monitoring and Control” Processing of 2013 IEEE Conference on Control Applications, Vol 2 june pp 1350-1355, 2003.
2. SENSORS- The jounal of Applied sensing Technology, Advanstar Communications INC.

3. Kenneth M. Chomitz (1998) Baselines for Green House Gas Reduces: Problems, Precedents, Solutions. Development Research group, Carbon oxides unites.

4. Leong Boon Tik, Chan Toong Khuan, Sellappan Palaniappan (2009) “Monitoring of an Aeroponic Green House with a sensor network” International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security Vol 9.

5. Gushing Wu. The principal and Application of new type of Temperature and Humidity Sensor SHT10 pp 53-54, 2009.






Priya V, Biju V. G.

Paper Title:

SVM Based Liver Tumor Classification from Computerized Tomography Images

Abstract: Accurate liver segmentation and tumor detection on computerized tomography (CT) images is a crucial task in the cases where surrounding tissues have intensities similar to that of the liver and lesions reside at the liver edges. In this paper, an automated method to segment liver portion, followed by tumor area from abdominal CT image is proposed. For this, the CT images are pre-processed by median filter to remove noise from the image and liver is segmented using localized region based active contouring algorithm. Tumor is detected from segmented liver using seed region growing algorithm. Using Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM), the texture features of the tumor are extracted. Support Vector machine (SVM) is used to classify the tumor as either benign or malignant based on these texture features. The performances of liver segmentation and tumor detection are evaluated by using Segmentation Matching Factor (SMF), Dice coefficient (DICE COEFF), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). Experimental results show that the proposed method has a lower error in segmenting the liver and is able to detect and classify all tumors from the liver accurately

CT image, Localized region based active contours, Region Growing Algorithm, GLCM, SVM.

1. Soler,, H. Delingette, G. Malandain, J. Motagnat, N. Ayache, C. Koehl, O. Dourtheb, B. Malassagne, M. Smith, D. Mutter, J. Marescaux: “Fully automatic anatomical, pathological, and functional segmentation from ct”. Proc. SPIE Medical Imaging 3979 (2000) 246–255.
2. H. Lamecker, T. Lange, M. Seebass: “Segmentation of the liver using a 3d statistical shape model”. Technical Report ZIB-Report 04-09, Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum fr Informationstechnik Berlin (April 2004).

3. P. Campadelli, E. Casiraghi, G. Lombardi, “Automatic Liver Segmentation from Abdominal CT Scans”, 14th International Conference on Image Analysis and Processing-ICIAP 2007, IEEE Computer Society, pp. 731- 736, 2007.

4. T. Okada, R. Shimada, Y. Sato, M. Hori, K. Yokota, M. Nakamoto, Y.W. Chen, H. Nakamura, “Automated Segmentation of the Liver from 3D CT Images Using Probabilistic Atlas and Multi-level Statistical Shape Model,” MICCAI 2007, LNCS, vol.4791, pp. 86-93, 2007

5. J A Sethian,.: “Level Set Methods and Fast Marching Methods”. Cambridge University Press (1999).

6. T. E. Chan, B. Y. Sandberg, and L. A. Vese, “Active contours without edges for vector-valued images,” J. Visual Commun. Image Represent., vol. 11, pp. 130–141, Jun. 2000. [7] Pohle, R., Toennies, K.D.: Segmentation of medical images using adaptive region growing. Proc. SPIE Medical Imaging 4322 (2001) 1337–1346.

7. K.-S. Seo, "Automatic Hepatic Tumor Segmentation Using Composite Hypotheses," in Image Analysis and Recognition, vol. 3656, 2005, pp.922-929.

8. K. K. Dipak, B. Saptarshi, M. Sreeja, M. Sampita, S. Atreyee, S. Souptik, M. Dibya and ArunaChakraborty, “Automatic Detection and Size Measurement of Hepatic Lesions”, International Journal of Wisdom Based Computing, Vol. 1 (3), December 2011.

9. H. Nader, M. Mohiy, M. Khalid, “Fully automatic liver tumor segmentation from abdominal CT scans” IEEE 2010.

10. A.G Sajith, S. Hariharan, “Medical Image Segmentation Using CT Scans-A Level Set Approach”,International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE) ISSN: 2278-3075, Volume-2, Issue-6, May 2013.

11. S. Lankton and A. Tannenbaum, “Localizing region-based active contours,” IEEE Trans. Image Process., vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 2029–2039, Nov. 2008.

12. G. Megha, J. P. Gawande,” Automated Segmentation of Liver and Tumourand Feature Extraction from Abdominal Ct Images Using Region Growing Method” Proceedings of 10th Irf International Conference, 01st June-2014, Pune, India,

13. M V Sudhamani, G T Raju,” Segmentation and Classification of Tumor in Computed Tomography Liver Images for Detection, Analysis and Preoperative Planning”, International Journal of Advanced Computer Research (ISSN (print): 2249-7277 ISSN (online): 2277-7970) Volume-4 Number-1 Issue-14 March-2014.






Ralesh Ranjan Biswal, Pradipta Dutta

Paper Title:

A Comparative Study of Back Gate Misalignment Effects for Nano Scale Symmetric and Asymmetric Double Gate Mosfets

Abstract: The technical advancement in the field of device scaling leads to a major concern i.e. short channel effects in conventional single gate (SG) Metal- Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistor (MOSFET). Hence the double gate (DG) MOSFETs become a best option due to its better controllability of gate over the both the front and back channel. Primarily there are two types of DG-MOSFETs, known as Symmetric DG-MOSFET and Asymmetric DG-MOSFET. But the misalignment of top gate and bottom gate is a matter of concern in the fabrication process of the device. This misalignment of both the gates can cause damage to the device characteristics and affect the parameters like threshold voltage, drain current and surface potential. In this paper the back gate misalignment effects are investigated for both symmetric and asymmetric DG-MOSFETs and a comparative study has been made. The misalignment is considered towards both source side and drain side. Quantum mechanical effect and mobility degradation are not incorporated in our work for simplicity purpose.

DG MOSFET, Gate Misalignment, Threshold voltage roll off, Drain current degradation, Surface potential variation


1. Mahmoodi, H., Mukhopadhyay, S., Roy, K., 2004. High performance and low power domino logic using independent gate control in double-gate SOI MOSFETs, in Proc. IEEE Int. SOI Conf., 2004, pp. 67–68.
2. Jente, B., Kuang, Keunwoo Kim, Ching-Te Chuang, Hung C. Ngo, Fadi H. Gebara, and Kevin J. Nowka, 2008. Circuit Techniques Utilizing Independent Gate Control in Double-Gate Technologies, IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, Vol. 16, No. 12, pp. 1657-1665.

3. Mukhopadhyay, S., Mahmoodiand, H., Roy, K., A Novel High Performance and Robust Sense Amplifier Using Independent Gate Control in Sub-50-nm Double-Gate MOSFET, 2006. IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 183-192.

4. Shen, J., Man, T., Chan, M., 2D Analysis of Bottom Gate Misalignment and Process Tolerant for Sub- 100nm Symmetric Double-Gate MOSFETs, 2003. Electron Devices and Solid-State Circuits.

5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multigate_device.

6. Nowak, E., et.al, Turning Silicon on its edge, 2004. IEEE circuits and Device Magazine, pp.20-31.

7. Jin-Woo Han, Chung-Jim Kim, and Yang-Kyu Choi, Universal Potential Model in Tied and Separated Double-Gate MOSFETs with consideration of symmetric and asymmetric structure, 2008. IEEE Transaction on Electron Devices Vol.-55, No.-6, pp. 1472-1479.

8. Shrivastava, A.K., Akashe, S., Design high performance and low power 10T full adder using Double Gate MOSFET at 45nm technology,2013. ICCCCM, pp.1-5.

9. Sarangi, S., Gopi Krishna .S, Santra, A., Shiv Bhushan, and Tiwari, P.K., A Simulation-based Study of Gate Misalignment Effects in Triple-Material Double Gate (TM DG) MOSFETs. 2013. IEEE conference, IMAC4S, pp.4

10. “Integrated Systems Engineering (ISE) TCAD Manuals,” Integr.Syst. Eng., Zurich, Switzerland, 2006. Release 10.0. International Technology. entaurus TCAD simulator.

11. Kuo, J.B.; Sun, E.C., "A compact threshold voltage model for gate misalignment effect of DG FD SOI nMOS devices considering fringing electric field effects," Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on , vol.51, no.4, pp.587,596, April 2004.





Surekha Lanka, Sidra Ehsan

Paper Title:

Pro-Log Software Design Methodologies In Universities

Abstract: This paper shows us reasons for using the ProLog and its features. Present achievement of technologies, selecting of artificial intelligence to ensure to prove the knowledgeable, aware of the character or nature of facts and rules by the visual ProLog. It is a high-status tool in programming, artificial intelligence and used for the development of expert systems. This dissertation is on tutorial to understand visual ProLog for someone who is studying in universities. It also helps in developing different applications in real time to enter a particular profession. And also we will consider general facts and testing with the Visual ProLog software.

Compound domain, Expert system, IDE, knowledge base, VIP.


1. http://www.amzi.com/ExpertSystemsInProLog/xsipfrtop.htm
2. http://wiki.visualProLog.com/index.php?title=Symbolic_analysis

3. http://www.visual-ProLog.com/

4. http://www.aistudy.com/program/ProLog/visual_ProLog/Using%20the%20Environment.htm

5. https://www.spec2000.net/04-expertsystems.htm

6. https://uqu.edu.sa/files2/tiny_mce/plugins/filemanager/files/4290078/deBoer-BeginnersGuide.pdf

7. http://people.scs.carleton.ca/~bertossi/KR11/material/gelfond02.pdf

8. https://www.spec2000.net/04-expertsystems.htm

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Tejveer Singh Anand, Satinder Singh

Paper Title:

Unleashing Nature’s Power in Residential Sector- An Another way to Save Energy Resources: An Empirical Study

Abstract: Residential sector is one of the prime area where energy saving can be implemented under win-win situation by installing solar street lighting system. Manufacturers, Suppliers, promoters and even Govt. bodies may take a lead part as being undertaken for the Govt. organizations / installations through DGS&D rate contract with subsidized rate for residential sector too. An empirical study has been conducted from ten different housing societies of Ahmadabad urban area those covered under co-operative housing societies and researchers found that there are lots of scope to save energy by just switching over to solar street lighting system with LED lamps from the conventional street lighting that will not only boost towards renewable energy use but saves lots of energy resources whether it is coal or oil as input fuel to thermal power plant.

Solar Street Lighting, Solar Cell, LED Lamps, Residential sector


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